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  • 1998 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (SB 41-01) It is estimated that 1998 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to approximately $605 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was $3.63 billion, this giving a 16.6 percent total disease loss across all crops included in this summary.
  • 1999 Corn Performance Tests (RR 661) Corn performance trials were conducted at six locations throughout Georgia in 1999. Short-season, mid-season, and full-season hybrids were planted at Tifton, Plains, and Midville in the coastal plain region, at Griffin in the Piedmont region, at Calhoun in the limestone valley region, and at Blairsville in the mountain region. High oil corn hybrids were tested at Tifton and Plains. Hybrids used fo…
  • 1999 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (SB 41-02) It is estimated that 1999 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to approximately $580.25 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was $4.124 billion, resulting in a 14.07 percent total disease loss across all crops included in this summary.
  • 1999 Peanut, Cotton and Tobacco Performance Tests (RR 664) This research report presents the results of the 1999 statewide performance tests of peanut, cotton, and tobacco. The tests for various evaluations were conducted at several or all of the following locations: Tifton, Plains, and Midville in the Coastal Plain region and Athens in the Piedmont region. For identification of the test site locations, consult the map in this report.
  • 1999 Soybean, Sorghum Grain and Silage, Grain Millet, and Summer Annual Forages Performance Tests (RR 663) This research report presents the results of the 1999 statewide performance tests of soybean, sorghum grain and silage, grain millet, and summer annual forages. The tests for various evaluations were conducted at several or all of the following locations: Tifton, Plains, and Midville in the Coastal Plain region; Griffin and Athens in the Piedmont region; Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region; and…
  • 1999-2000 Small Grains Performance Tests (RR 666) Grain-evaluation studies were conducted at five locations, including Tifton, Plains, and Midville in the Coastal Plain region, Griffin in the Piedmont region, and Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region. Small grain forage evaluation tests were conducted at three locations in Georgia, which included Tifton and Plains in the Coastal Plain, Griffin in the Piedmont, and at Quincy, Florida.
  • 2000 Corn Performance Tests (RR 668) Corn performance trials were conducted at six locations throughout Georgia and two locations in Florida in 2000. Short-season, mid-season, and full-season hybrids were planted at Tifton, Plains, and Midville in the coastal plain region, at Griffin in the Piedmont region, at Calhoun in the limestone valley region, at Blairsville in the mountain region, and at Quincy and Jay in the panhandle region …
  • 2000 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (SB 41-03) It is estimated that 2000 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to approximately $572.34 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was more than $4.376 billion, resulting in a 13.07 percent total disease loss across all crops included in this summary.
  • 2000 Peanut, Cotton and Tobacco Performance Tests (RR 671) This research report presents the results of the 2000 statewide performance tests of peanut, cotton and tobacco. The tests for various evaluations were conducted at several or all of the following locations: Tifton, Plains and Midville in the Coastal Plain region and Athens in the Piedmont region.
  • 2000 Soybean, Sorghum Grain and Silage, Grain Millet, Sunflower, and Summer Annual Forages Performance Tests (RR 670) This research report presents the results of the 2000 statewide performance tests of soybean, sorghum grain and silage, grain millet, sunflower, and summer annual forages.
  • 2000-2001 Canola Performance Tests (RR 674) The 2000-2001 canola growing season was characterized by a dry and cool fall, an early and cold winter, and a mild spring. Soil conditions were extremely dry during September and October. This made land preparation difficult and, in some cases, delayed planting.
  • 2000-2001 Small Grains Performance Tests (RR 673) Results of the 2000-2001 performance tests of small grains grown for grain and forage are printed in this research report. Grain-evaluation studies were conducted at five locations, including Tifton, Plains and Midville in the Coastal Plain region; Griffin in the Piedmont region; and Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region. Small grain forage evaluation tests were conducted at four locations in Geo…
  • 2001 Corn Performance Tests (RR 675) Corn performance trials were conducted at six locations throughout Georgia and two locations in Florida in 2001. Short-season, mid-season and full-season hybrids were planted at Tifton, Plains and Midville in the coastal plain region, at Griffin in the Piedmont region, at Calhoun in the limestone valley region, at Blairsville in the mountain region and at Quincy and Jay in the panhandle region of …
  • 2001 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (SB 41-04) It is estimated that 2001 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to approximately $587.107 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was more than $4.799 billion, resulting in a 12.23 percent total disease loss across all crops included in this summary.
  • 2001 Peanut, Cotton and Tobacco Performance Tests (RR 677) This research report presents the results of the 2001 statewide performance tests of peanut, cotton and tobacco. The tests for various evaluations were conducted at several or all of the following locations: Bainbridge, Tifton, Plains and Midville in the Coastal Plain region and Athens in the Piedmont region. For identification of the test site locations, consult the map below.
  • 2001 Soybean, Sorghum Grain and Silage, Grain Millet, and Summer Annual Forages Performance Tests (RR 676) This research report presents the results of the 2001 statewide performance tests of soybean, sorghum grain and silage, grain millet, and summer annual forages. The tests for various evaluations were conducted at several or all of the following locations: Tifton, Plains and Midville in the Coastal Plain region; Griffin and Athens in the Piedmont region; Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region; and …
  • 2002 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (SB 41-05) It is estimated that 2002 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to approximately $576.65 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was approximately $4.376 billion, resulting in a 13.18 percent total disease loss across all crops included in this summary.
  • 2003 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (SB 41-06) It is estimated that 2003 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to approximately $682.67 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was approximately $5.399 billion, resulting in a 12.64 percent total disease loss across all crops included in this summary.
  • 2005 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (SB 41-08) It is estimated that 2005 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to approximately $537.44 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was approximately $4377.6 million, resulting in a 12.28 percent total disease loss across all crops included in this summary.
  • 2006 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (SB 41-09) It is estimated that 2006 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to approximately $647.2 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was approximately $4673.73 million, resulting in a 12.08 percent total disease loss across all crops included in this summary.
  • 2007 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (SB 41-10) It is estimated that 2007 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to approximately $539.74 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was approximately $4815.02 million, resulting in an 11.03 percent total disease loss across all crops included in this summary.
  • 2007 Tobacco Research Report (SB 63) This report contains research that evaluates disease and insect management programs, and new cultivars for agronomic aspects of tobacco production in Georgia.
  • 2008 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (AP 102-1) It is estimated that losses due to plant diseases in Georgia in 2008 amounted to $612.06 million. These losses include actual losses in yield and quality as well as costs of disease control measures. The value of these crops was approximately $4,846.05 million, which resulted in a 12.03% total disease loss for crops grown in 2008.
  • 2008 Tobacco Research Report (SB 63-2) The following research reports represent efforts of several research scientists to reduce production inputs in tobacco and thereby improve the profitability of tobacco production in Georgia.
  • 2008-2009 Georgia Small Grain Performance Tests (AP 100) This report includes results of the 2008-2009 performance tests of small grains grown for grain and forage. Small grain forage evaluation tests were conducted at four locations in Georgia, which included Tifton and Plains in the coastal plain, Griffin in the piedmont, and Calhoun in the limestone valley region, and at Marianna, Fla.
  • 2009 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (AP 102-2) It is estimated that 2009 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to approximately $653.06 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was approximately $5887.33 million, resulting in an 11.09 total percent disease loss across all crops included in this summary.
  • 2009 Soybean, Sorghum Grain and Silage, Summer Annual Forages and Sunflower Performance Tests (AP 103) This publication presents the results of the 2009 statewide performance tests of soybean, sorghum grain and silage, sunflower and summer annual forages. The tests for various evaluations were conducted at several or all of the following locations: Tifton, Plains and Midville in the Coastal Plain region; Griffin and Athens in the Piedmont region; and Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region.
  • 2009 Tobacco Research Report (SB 63-3) This report contains the most recent results of tobacco research programs at the University of Georgia.
  • 2009-2010 Georgia Small Grain Performance Tests (AP 100-2) Grain evaluation studies were conducted at five locations in Georgia, including Tifton, Plains and Midville in the Coastal Plain region, Griffin in the Piedmont region, Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region, and at Marianna, Florida. Small grain forage evaluation tests were conducted at four locations in Georgia, which included Tifton and Plains in the Coastal Plain, Griffin in the Piedmont, and …
  • 2010 Georgia Corn Performance Tests (AP 101-2) This publication includes the results of the 2010 corn performance trials. Corn performance trials were conducted at six locations throughout Georgia in 2010. Short-season and mid-season hybrids were planted at Tifton, Plains, and Midville in the Coastal Plain region, at Griffin in the Piedmont region, at Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region, and at Blairsville in the Mountain region. Hybrids us…
  • 2010 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (AP 102-3) It is estimated that 2010 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to approximately $701.2 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was approximately $4236.51 million, resulting in a 16.5 total percent disease loss across all crops included in this summary.
  • 2010 Soybean, Sorghum Grain and Silage, Summer Annual Forages, and Sunflower Performance Tests (AP 103-2) This research report presents the results of the 2010 statewide performance tests of soybean, sorghum grain and silage, sunflower and summer annual forages.
  • 2010 Tobacco Research Report (SB 63-4) Like other agricultural enterprises, the tobacco industry has experienced a great deal of change in recent years and continues to evolve. Many challenges exist, including those associated with plant disease, soil fertility, insects, changing markets and global competition, all of which impact profitability. This report contains the most recent results of 2010 tobacco research and field trial progr…
  • 2010 UGA Cotton Defoliant Evaluation Program - Midville Location (AP 111) This publication discusses the results of the 2010 UGA Cotton Defoliant Evaluation Program at the Midville location.
  • 2010 UGA Cotton Defoliant Evaluation Program - Tifton Location (AP 112) This publication presents the results of the 2010 UGA Cotton Defoliant Evaluation Program at the Tifton location.
  • 2010 UGA Uniform Cotton Variety Performance Evaluation Program (AP 110) This publication provides information on the 2010 UGA uniform cotton variety performance evaluation program. This was a “first-ever” approach, in that it illustrates how variety performance can change across a range of environments, which provides information on how to place varieties in environments where they will likely perform their best.
  • 2010-2011 Georgia Small Grain Performance Tests (AP 100-3) Results of the 2010-2011 performance tests of small grains grown for grain and forage are printed in this research report. Grain evaluation studies were conducted at five locations in Georgia, including Tifton, Plains and Midville in the Coastal Plain region, Griffin in the Piedmont region, Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region and at Quincy, Florida. Small grain forage evaluation tests were cond…
  • 2011 Georgia Corn Performance Tests (AP 101-3) In this research report, the results of the 2011 corn performance trials are presented. Corn performance trials were conducted at six locations throughout Georgia (see map inside back cover) in 2011. Short-season and mid-season hybrids were planted at Tifton, Plains and Midville in the Coastal Plain region, at Griffin in the Piedmont region, at Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region and at Blairsv…
  • 2011 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (AP 102-4) It is estimated that 2011 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to approximately $823.4 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was approximately $6285.1 million, resulting in a 13.1% total percent disease loss across all crops included in this summary.
  • 2011 Soybean, Sorghum Grain and Silage, and Summer Annual Forages Performance Tests (AP 103-3) This research report presents the results of the 2011 statewide performance tests of soybean, sorghum grain and silage, and summer annual forages.
  • 2011 Tobacco Research Report (SB 63-5) This report contains the most recent results of tobacco programs at the University of Georgia.
  • 2011 UGA Cotton Defoliant Evaluation Program - Midville Location (AP 111-2) This publication presents the results of the This publication discusses the results of the 2011 UGA Cotton Defoliant Evaluation Program at the Midville location.
  • 2011 UGA Cotton Defoliant Evaluation Program - Tifton Location (AP 112-2) This publication presents the results of the 2011 UGA Cotton Defoliant Evaluation Program at the Tifton location.
  • 2011 UGA Uniform Cotton Variety Performance Evaluation Program (AP 110-2) The UGA Cotton Variety Performance Evaluation Program was a huge success in 2011, with 15 individual trials throughout Georgia’s cotton belt. This approach illustrates how variety performance can change across a range of environments, which provides information on how to place varieties in environments where they will likely be competitive. This publication contains information about the results…
  • 2011-2012 Georgia Small Grains Performance Tests (AP 100-4) Results of the 2011-2012 performance tests of small grains grown for grain and forage are printed in this research report. Grain evaluation studies were conducted at five locations in Georgia, including Tifton, Plains and Midville in the Coastal Plain region, Griffin in the Piedmont region and Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region. Small grain forage evaluation tests were conducted at four locat…
  • 2012 Georgia Corn Performance Tests (AP 101-4) In this research report, the results of the 2012 corn performance trials are presented. Corn performance trials were conducted at six locations throughout Georgia in 2012. Short-season and mid-season hybrids were planted at Tifton, Plains, and Midville in the Coastal Plain region, at Griffin in the Piedmont region, at Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region, and at Blairsville in the Mountain regio…
  • 2012 Georgia Cotton Research and Extension Report (AP 108) This publication contains a report of cotton research trials and Extension activity in Georgia for 2011-2012.
  • 2012 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (AP 102-5) It is estimated that 2012 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to approximately $855.98 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was approximately $6,647.83 million, resulting in a 12.9% total disease loss across all crops included in this summary. Loss estimates for apple, blackberry, blueberry, bunch grape, corn, cotton, muscadine grape, ornamentals, peach, pean…
  • 2012 Soybean, Sorghum Grain and Silage, and Summer Annual Forages Performance Tests (AP 103-4) This report contains the results of the 2012 soybean, sorghum grain and silage, and summer annual forages performance tests.
  • 2012 Tobacco Research Report (SB 63-6) This report contains the most recent results of tobacco programs at the University of Georgia.
  • 2012 UGA Uniform Cotton Variety Performance Evaluation Program (AP 110-3) The UGA Extension Cotton Agronomists established this variety testing program in 2010. Our 2012 industry representatives (Americot, Bayer CropScience, Dow AgroSciences and Monsanto Company) were asked to provide commercially available cotton varieties that they considered their best-adapted varieties for Georgia. This uniform list of CORE varieties was planted in replicated trials in growers’ fiel…
  • 2012-2013 Georgia Small Grain Performance Tests (AP 100-5) This publication contains results of the 2012-2013 small grain performance tests in Georgia.
  • 2013 Georgia Corn Performance Tests (AP 101-5) In this research report, the results of the 2013 corn performance trials are presented. Short-season and mid-season hybrids were planted at Tifton, Plains, and Midville in the Coastal Plain region; at Griffin in the Piedmont region; at Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region; and at Blairsville in the Mountain region. Hybrids used for silage were evaluated at Tifton, Griffin, Calhoun, and Blairsvil…
  • 2013 Georgia Cotton Research and Extension Report (AP 108-2) This publication contains a report of cotton research trials and Extension activity in Georgia for 2012-2013.
  • 2013 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (AP 102-6) It is estimated that 2013 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to approximately $821.85 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was approximately $6,551.91 million, resulting in a 12.55% total disease loss across all crops included in this summary. Loss estimates for apple, blackberry, blueberry, bunch grape, corn, cotton, muscadine grape, ornamentals, peach, pean…
  • 2013 Soybean, Sorghum Grain and Silage, and Summer Annual Forages Performance Tests (AP 103-5) This research report presents the results of the 2013 statewide performance tests of soybean, sorghum grain and silage, and summer annual forages. The tests for various evaluations were conducted at several or all of the following locations: Tifton, Plains and Midville in the Coastal Plain region; Griffin and Athens in the Piedmont region; and Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region.
  • 2013 Tobacco Research Report (SB 63-7) This report contains the most recent results of tobacco research programs at the University of Georgia.
  • 2013 UGA Uniform Cotton Variety Performance Evaluation Program (AP 110-4) The UGA Extension Cotton Agronomists established this variety testing program in 2010. Our 2013 industry representatives (Americot, Bayer CropScience, Croplan Genetics, Dyna-Gro, Dow AgroSciences and Monsanto Company) were asked to provide commercially available cotton varieties that they considered their best-adapted varieties for Georgia. This uniform list of varieties was planted in replicated …
  • 2013 Vegetable Crops Research Report (AP 113) This publication contains a report of research trials done on vegetable crops in Georgia in 2013.
  • 2013-2014 Georgia Small Grain Performance Tests (AP 100-6) This publication contains results of the 2013-2014 small grain performance tests in Georgia.
  • 2014 Georgia Corn Performance Tests (AP 101-6) In this research report, the results of the 2014 corn performance trials are presented. Short-season and mid-season hybrids were planted at Tifton, Plains, and Midville in the Coastal Plain region; at Griffin in the Piedmont region; at Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region; and at Blairsville in the Mountain region. Hybrids used for silage were evaluated at Tifton, Griffin, Calhoun, and Blairsvil…
  • 2014 Georgia Cotton Research and Extension Report (AP 108-3) This publication contains a report of cotton research trials and Extension activity in Georgia for 2013-2014.
  • 2014 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (AP 102-7) This annual publication is compiled by the Department of Plant Pathology based on input from department Extension personnel.
  • 2014 Soybean, Sorghum Grain and Silage, and Summer Annual Forages Performance Tests (AP 103-6) This research report presents the results of the 2014 statewide performance tests of soybean, sorghum grain and silage, and summer annual forages. The tests for various evaluations were conducted at several or all of the following locations: Tifton, Plains and Midville in the Coastal Plain region; Griffin and Athens in the Piedmont region; and Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region.
  • 2014 Tobacco Research Report (SB 63-8) This report contains the most results of tobacco research programs at the University of Georgia in 2014.
  • 2014 University of Georgia Vidalia Onion Extension and Research Report (AP 114) This publication is a report of 2012-2014 onion research variety trials and Extension activity at the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.
  • 2014/2015 Vegetable Crop Variety Trial and Research Report (AP 115) This publication is a report of research and Cooperative Extension trials conducted on cole crops, beans and peas, sweet corn, cucurbits, peppers, and tomato at the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.
  • 2014-2015 Georgia Small Grain Performance Tests (AP 100-7) Results of the 2014-2015 performance tests of small grains grown for grain and forage are printed in this research report. Grain evaluation studies were conducted at five locations in Georgia, including Tifton, Plains, and Midville in the Coastal Plain region; Griffin in the Piedmont region; and Calhounin the Limestone Valley region. Small grain forage evaluation tests were conducted at four locat…
  • 2015 Georgia Corn Performance Tests (AP 101-7) In this research report, the results of the 2015 corn performance trials are presented. Short-season and mid-season hybrids were planted at Tifton, Plains, and Midville in the Coastal Plain region, at Griffin in the Piedmont region, at Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region, and at Blairsville in the Mountain region. Hybrids used for silage were evaluated at Tifton, Griffin, Calhoun, and Blairsvil…
  • 2015 Georgia Cotton Research and Extension Report (AP 108-4) This publication contains a report of cotton research trials and Extension activity in Georgia for 2014-2015.
  • 2015 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (AP 102-8) This publication includes a summary of the impact of plant disease on the major crops produced in Georgia. It's published annually by the Department of Plant Pathology and is compiled based on input from department Extension personnel.
  • 2015 Southeast Regional Organic Blueberry Pest Management Guide (AP 125-1) This publication provides Southeast-specific information on approved National Organic Program (NOP) disease and pest management options for blueberry production and addresses the issues most commonly encountered under the unique growing conditions of the Southeast U.S. This publication is not intended to provide all details on organic blueberry production, although it does include the production m…
  • 2015 Tobacco Research Report (SB 63-9) This report contains the most recent results of tobacco research programs at the University of Georgia in 2015.
  • 2015-2016 Georgia Small Grain Performance Tests (AP 100-8) This research report includes the results of the 2015-2016 performance tests of small grains grown for grain and forage. Grain evaluation studies were conducted at five locations in Georgia, including Tifton, Plains, and Midville in the Coastal Plain region; Griffin in the Piedmont region; and Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region. Small grain forage evaluation tests were conducted at four loca…
  • 2016 Georgia Corn Performance Tests (AP 101-8) In this research report, the results of the 2016 corn performance trials are presented. Short-season and mid-season hybrids were planted at Tifton, Plains, and Midville in the Coastal Plain region, at Griffin in the Piedmont region, at Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region, and at Blairsville in the Mountain region. Hybrids used for silage were evaluated at Tifton, Griffin, Calhoun, and Blairsvil…
  • 2016 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (AP 102-9) In 2016, Georgia’s plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to an estimated $821 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was approximately $6,596 million, resulting in a 12.8% relative disease loss across all crops included in this summary. The estimated values for most crops used to compute these disease losses are summarized in the UGA Center for Agribusiness and Eco…
  • 2016 Tobacco Research Report (SB 63-10) This report contains the most recent results of tobacco research programs at the University of Georgia in 2016.
  • 2017 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (AP 102-10) 2017 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to an estimated $936 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was approximately $6,634 million, resulting in a 14.1% relative disease loss across all crops included in this summary. The estimated values for most crops used to compute these disease losses are summarized in the 2017 Georgia Farm Gate Value Report (AR-18-01) pu…
  • 2018 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (AP 102-11) 2018 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to an estimated $844 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was approximately $6,268 million, resulting in a 13.5% relative disease loss across all crops included in this summary. The estimated values for most crops used to compute these disease losses are summarized in the UGA Center for Agribusiness & Economic Developmen…
  • 2019 Corn, Sorghum Grain and Silage, and Summer Annual Forages Performance Tests (AP 101-11) This research report presents the results of the 2019 corn, sorghum and summer annual forage performance trials. Trials were conducted at seven locations throughout Georgia, depending on the crop. These included Tifton, Plains, and Midville in the Coastal Plain region, Athens and Griffin in the Piedmont region, Calhoun in the Limestone Valley region, and Blairsville in the Mountain region. Hybrids…
  • 2019 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (AP 102-12) 2019 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to an estimated $832 million. The value of the cropsused in this estimate was approximately $6.64 billion, resulting in a 13.3% relative disease loss across all crops included in this summary. The estimated values for most crops used to compute these disease losses are summarized in the UGA Center for Agribusiness & Economic Development,…
  • 2019 Vegetable Extension and Research Report (AP 113-1) This report provides research and extension results for trials conducted by the University of Georgia Vegetable Team and its collaborators in 2019. Contributing authors include county and regional faculty as well as specialists from UGA's horticulture, plant pathology, crop and soil sciences, and entomology departments.
  • 2019 Vidalia Onion Extension and Research Report (AP 114-1) This annual publication includes a report of 2018-19 onion research variety trials and Extension activity at the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. The report contains the results of research awarded by the Vidalia Onion Commodity Commission in 2019.
  • 2020 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (AP 102-13) 2020 plant disease losses in Georgia, including control costs, amounted to an estimated $806 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was approximately $6.712 billion, resulting in a 12.01% relative disease loss across all crops included in this summary. The estimated values for most crops used to compute these disease losses are summarized in the 2020 Georgia Farm Gate Value Report (…
  • 2020 Southeast Regional Strawberry Integrated Pest Management Guide for Plasticulture Production (AP 119-1) This regional integrated pest management guide provides recommendations for strawberry production in the Southeastern U.S. Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and Extension field tests. This publication is intended for use only as a guide. Specific rates and application methods are on the pesticide label, and these are subject t…
  • 2020 UGA On-Farm Cotton Variety Evaluation Program (AP 110-5) Variety selection is one of the biggest decisions and investments cotton growers make each year. In 2010, the UGA Extension Cotton Agronomists implemented the UGA On-Farm Cotton Variety Evaluation Program to assist in this decision. In this annual publication, varieties were evaluated in 2020 across a wide range of environments in the cotton producing regions of Georgia in cooperation with county …
  • 2020 Vegetable Extension and Research Report (AP 113-2) This report provides research and extension results for trials conducted by the University of Georgia Vegetable Team and its collaborators in 2020. Contributing authors include county and regional faculty as well as specialists from UGA's horticulture, plant pathology, crop and soil sciences, and entomology departments.
  • 2020 Vidalia Onion Extension and Research Report (AP 114-2) This annual publication includes a report of 2019-20 onion research variety trials and Extension activity at the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences. The report contains the results of research awarded by the Vidalia Onion Commodity Commission.
  • 2021 Georgia Cotton Production Guide (AP 124-1) The 2021 cotton production guide provides an in-depth look at cotton production in Georgia and the southeastern United States. Issues discussed include economic outlook, fertility, weed management, insect management, disease and nematode management, irrigation decisions, precision ag technology, and general agronomics of the cotton crop (varieties, PGR applications, defoliation, etc.).
  • 2021 Georgia Plant Disease Loss Estimates (AP 102-14) 2021 plant disease losses, including control costs, amounted to an estimated $889 million. The value of the crops used in this estimate was approximately $7690 million, resulting in a 11.6% relative disease loss across all crops included in this summary. For most crops, the estimated values used to compute these disease losses are summarized in the UGA Center for Agribusiness & Economic Developmen…
  • 2021 Southeast Regional Blueberry Integrated Management Guide (AP 123-1) Integrated pest management information for blueberry producers in the Southeastern U.S. Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and Extension field tests. This publication is intended for use only as a guide. Specific rates and application methods are on the pesticide label, and these are subject to change at any time.
  • 2021 Southeast Regional Caneberry Integrated Management Guide (AP 121-1) The 2021 Southeast Regional Caneberry Integrated Management Guide covers topics such as pesticide stewardship and safety, insect and disease control, pre-transplant and transplant operations, fungicide and insecticide efficacy comparisons and spray schedules, weed management, wildlife damage, and more. Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from…
  • 2021 Southeast Regional Organic Blueberry Pest Management Guide (AP 125-2) This publication provides Southeast-specific information on approved National Organic Program (NOP) disease and pest management options for blueberry production and addresses the issues most commonly encountered under the unique growing conditions of the Southeast U.S. This publication is not intended to provide all details on organic blueberry production, although it does include the production m…
  • 2021 Southeast Regional Strawberry Integrated Pest Management Guide for Plasticulture Production (AP 119-2) The 2021 edition of this regional integrated pest management guide provides recommendations for strawberry production in the Southeastern U.S. Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and Extension field tests. This publication is intended for use only as a guide. Specific rates and application methods are on the pesticide label, and…
  • 2021 UGA On-Farm Cotton Variety Evaluation Program (AP 110-6) Variety selection is one of the biggest decisions and investments cotton growers make each year. In 2010, the UGA Extension Cotton Agronomists implemented the UGA On-Farm Cotton Variety Evaluation Program to assist in this decision. Varieties are evaluated across a wide range of environments in the cotton producing regions of Georgia in cooperation with county agents and industry partners. The imp…
  • 2021 Vegetable Extension and Research Report (AP 113-3) This report provides research and extension results for trials conducted by the University of Georgia Vegetable Team and its collaborators in 2021. Contributing authors include county and regional faculty as well as specialists from UGA's horticulture, plant pathology, crop and soil sciences, and entomology departments. All research has been supported by the Georgia Vegetable Commodity Commission.
  • 2022 Georgia Cotton Production Guide (AP 124-2) The cotton production guide provides an in-depth look at cotton production in Georgia and the southeastern United States. Issues discussed include economic outlook, fertility, weed management, insect management, disease and nematode management, irrigation decisions, precision ag technology, and general agronomics of the cotton crop (varieties, PGR applications, defoliation, etc.).
  • 2022 Southeast Regional Blueberry Integrated Management Guide (AP 123-2) The 2022 edition of this publication covers integrated pest management information for blueberry producers in the Southeastern U.S. Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and Extension field tests. This publication is intended for use only as a guide. Specific rates and application methods are on the pesticide label, and these are …
  • 2022 Southeast Regional Caneberry Integrated Management Guide (AP 121-2) The 2022 Southeast Regional Caneberry Integrated Management Guide covers topics such as pesticide stewardship and safety, insect and disease control, pre-transplant and transplant operations, fungicide and insecticide efficacy comparisons and spray schedules, weed management, wildlife damage, and more. Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from…
  • 2022 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (AP 126-1) This new regional integrated pest management guide provides recommendations for muscadine grape production in the Southeastern U.S. Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and Extension field tests. This publication is intended for use only as a guide. Specific rates and application methods are on the pesticide label, and these are …
  • 2022 Southeast Regional Strawberry Integrated Pest Management Guide For Plasticulture Production (AP 119-3) The 2022 edition of this regional integrated pest management guide provides recommendations for strawberry production in the Southeastern U.S. Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and Extension field tests. This publication is intended for use only as a guide. Specific rates and application methods are on the pesticide label, and…
  • 2022 UGA On-Farm Cotton Variety Evaluation Program (AP 110-7) Variety selection is one of the biggest decisions and investments cotton growers make each year. In 2010, the UGA Extension Cotton Agronomists implemented the UGA On-Farm Cotton Variety Evaluation Program to assist in this decision. In this annual publication, varieties were evaluated in 2020 across a wide range of environments in the cotton producing regions of Georgia in cooperation with county …
  • 2022 Vegetable Extension and Research Report (AP 113-4) This report provides research and extension results for trials conducted by the University of Georgia Vegetable Team and its collaborators in 2022. Contributing authors include county and regional faculty as well as specialists from UGA's horticulture, plant pathology, crop and soil sciences, and entomology departments. All research has been supported by the Georgia Commodity Commission for Vegeta…
  • 2022 Vidalia Onion Extension and Research Report (AP 114-3) This is an annual report highlighting research conducted during 2021 and 2022 for Vidalia onions. Research topics include: variety trials, irrigation and fertilizer strategies, sulfur content in soils, effect of fertilizers on yield, thrips, factors affecting postharvest incidence of bacterial bulb rot, and Botrytis leaf blight.
  • 2023 Ag Snapshots (AP 129-1) Ag Snapshots is a brief focus on Georgia's agricultural industry and are based on the Georgia Farm Gate Value Report from the previous year with helpful infographics and maps. Years prior to 2023 can be accessed on the Agribusiness and Economic Development publications site: https://caed.uga.edu/publications/georgia-agricultural-statistics.html
  • 2023 Georgia Ag Forecast (AP 130-1) Each year, UGA's agricultural economists develop a comprehensive overview to help various sectors of the agriculture industry navigate the year ahead. As Georgia's land-grant university, the University of Georgia conducts cutting-edge research on critical and emerging issues that are important to the agriculture industry. From this research, UGA provides the best information and education availabl…
  • 2023 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2022–2023 Commercial Poultry Outlook (AP 130-1-09) 1. The domestic chicken market is strong with a good supply in the short- to midterm, though highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) continues to loom large in the United States and could be a major impact in 2023. 2. High building costs an increasing interest rates are obstacles to expansion on the live side. 3. Future changes to the contract-grower pay model could be beneficial to growers, b…
  • 2023 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2023 Beef Cattle Outlook (AP 130-1-07) 1. Severe drought elevated cow slaughter in 2022. With fewer cows to slaughter in 2023, cattle prices are expected to increase. 2. China could become the largest export destination for U.S. beef in 2023. 3. As per capita beef consumption grows, there also will be a growing interest in plant-based alternatives.
  • 2023 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2023 Corn, Soybean, and Wheat Outlook (AP 130-1-06) 1. The Russia-Ukraine war and Mexico’s plan to ban genetically modified corn from the United States will increase uncertainty regarding corn prices. 2. The United States and the world will continue to have a tight wheat supply in 2023, supporting higher than average wheat prices. 3. The low ending stocks of U.S. soybeans indicate the need for more soybeans. Ending stocks might improve in 2023, lea…
  • 2023 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2023 Cotton Outlook (AP 130-1-03) 1. Reduction in consumer demand for cotton related products will suppress cotton prices in 2023. 2. U.S. cotton acreage and production likely will decline in 2023 because of lower relative-price expectations with competing crops. 3. The cotton production profit margin likely will be lower in 2023 with high input costs and low cotton prices.
  • 2023 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2023 Fruits and Tree Nuts Outlook (AP 130-1-04) 1. The three major U.S. peach-producing states experienced a significant fall in production which cumulatively reduced our 2022 production by 15%. Since it is difficult to predict whether the weather and water shortage that contributed to the decrease in production will persist, chances are that the situation may improve in 2023, but not by much. 2. The significantly high price received by…
  • 2023 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2023 Pork Outlook (AP 130-1-08) 1. 2022 U.S. pork prices continue to increase because of the limited number of slaughter-ready pigs. 2. Good outlook for 2023 as feed prices likely decrease and export demand increases.
  • 2023 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2023 Vegetables and Pulses Outlook (AP 130-1-05) 1. Although the total U.S. fresh vegetable and harvested area decreased by 7% in 2021 compared to 2020, the harvested area is expected to improve in 2023—but not enough to offset 2021. 2. Total vegetables and pulses imports were $18.6 billion in 2021, an increase of 10.2% compared to 2020. This import trend is expected in 2023 despite the supply chain disruption. 3. Production i…
  • 2023 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: Georgia Agritourism, Tourism and Travel 2023 (AP 130-1-13) 1. Visitor spending continues to increase in Georgia’s rural communities. 2. Total economic output for accommodations and food services in Georgia’s rural counties increased 26.7% in 2021 compared to 2020. 3. Visitations to state parks and outdoor recreation areas in rural communities increased 24% in 2021 compared to 2020.
  • 2023 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: Green Industry 2023 (AP 130-1-12) 1. 2022 was a good year for many green industry firms, with many firms seeing increased profits. 2. There are many unknowns going into 2023 that will impact green industry sales, including higher inflation and interest rates, mixed signals within the economy, and the impact of varying strength of the housing market in Georgia. 3. Green industry sales in Georgia are projected to be similar to 2022 …
  • 2023 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: Honey Bees 2023 (AP 130-1-10) 1. Honey production overall for 2022 was below average for the state. However, in some regions yields of two types of honey, northern wildflower and sourwood, were above average. 2. Colony losses for commercial operations were higher than 2021, with some reporting a 60%–70% loss, and backyard beekeepers in some cases experiencing losses above 80%. 3. Varroa destructor (parasitic mites) remains the…
  • 2023 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: Overall Georgia and U.S. Economic Outlook (AP 130-1-01) Each year, UGA's agricultural economists develop a comprehensive overview to help various sectors of the agriculture industry navigate the year ahead. As Georgia's land-grant university, the University of Georgia conducts cutting-edge research on critical and emerging issues that are important to the agriculture industry. From this research, UGA provides the best information and education availabl…
  • 2023 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: Peanut Situation and 2023 Outlook (AP 130-1-02) 1. Planted acres are expected to increase in 2023 in the United States and Georgia, a reversal of the 2-year decline in planted acres. 2. Georgia forward contract prices are expected to be down with an estimated season average price of $475 per ton (ranging $450–$500 per ton). 3. Peanut disappearance of the 2022–2023 crop is projected to remain strong at 3 million tons; this is supported by foreca…
  • 2023 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: Timber Situation and 2023 Outlook (AP 130-1-11) 1. Inflation remains a persistent challenge. 2. Housing activity is beginning to moderate. 3. U.S. South softwood lumber market share is increasing along with production capacity. Plentiful timber supplies and capital expenditures are positives. Authors of this section are Tyler Reeves and Amanda Lang, Forisk Consulting; and Joe Parsons and Yanshu Li, Harley Langdale Jr. Center for Forest Business…
  • 2023 Georgia Cotton Production Guide (AP 124-3) The 2023 edition of the cotton production guide provides an in-depth look at cotton production in Georgia and the Southeastern U.S. Issues discussed include economic outlook, fertility, weed management, insect management, disease and nematode management, irrigation decisions, precision ag technology, and general agronomics of the cotton crop (varieties, PGR applications, defoliation, etc.).
  • 2023 Southeast Regional Blueberry Integrated Management Guide (AP 123-3) The 2023 edition of this publication covers integrated pest management information for blueberry producers in the Southeastern U.S. Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and Extension field tests. This publication is intended for use only as a guide. Specific rates and application methods are on the pesticide label, and these are …
  • 2023 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide (AP 131-1) This is a new annual guide for managing diseases, insects, weeds, and wildlife in bunch grapes in the Southeast. This regional integrated pest management guide provides recommendations based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and Extension field tests. This publication is intended for use only as a guide. Specific rates and application methods are on th…
  • 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Integrated Management Guide (AP 121-3) This integrated pest management (IPM) guide for blackberry and raspberry production includes management of diseases, insects, and weeds through IPM principles. The 2023 Southeast Regional Caneberry Integrated Management Guide covers topics such as pesticide stewardship and safety, insect and disease control, pre-transplant and transplant operations, fungicide and insecticide efficacy comparisons a…
  • 2023 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (AP 126-2) This 2023 update to the regional integrated pest management guide provides recommendations for muscadine grape production in the Southeastern U.S. Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and Extension field tests. This publication is intended for use only as a guide. Specific rates and application methods are on the pesticide label,…
  • 2023 Southeast Regional Organic Blueberry Pest Management Guide (AP 125-3) This publication provides updated (2023) Southeast-specific information on approved National Organic Program (NOP) disease and pest management options for blueberry production and addresses the issues most commonly encountered under the unique growing conditions of the Southeast U.S. This publication is not intended to provide all details on organic blueberry production, although it does include t…
  • 2023 Southeast Regional Strawberry Integrated Pest Management Guide Focused on Plasticulture Production (AP 119-4) The 2023 edition of this regional integrated pest management guide provides recommendations for strawberry plasticulture production in the Southeastern U.S. Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and Extension field tests. This publication is intended for use only as a guide. Specific rates and application methods are on the pestic…
  • 2023 Vegetable Extension and Research Report (AP 113-5) This report provides research and extension results for trials conducted by the University of Georgia Vegetable Team and its collaborators in 2023. Contributing authors include county and regional faculty as well as specialists from UGA's horticulture, plant pathology, crop and soil sciences, and entomology departments. All research has been supported by the Georgia Commodity Commission for Vegeta…
  • 2024 Ag Snapshots (AP 129-2) Ag Snapshots is a brief focus on Georgia's agricultural industry and are based on the Georgia Farm Gate Value Report from the previous year with helpful infographics and maps. Years prior to 2023 can be accessed on the Agribusiness and Economic Development publications site: https://caed.uga.edu/publications/georgia-agricultural-statistics.html
  • 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2024 Beef Cattle Outlook (AP 130-2-08) 1. The beef cattle outlook is positive in 2024. Tight supplies and stable consumer demand are expected to push cattle prices higher in the year ahead. 2. Risks come from the demand side if U.S. consumers are uninterested or unable to pay for higher-priced beef. Additionally, input cost uncertainty may squeeze margins. 3. Overall, beef cattle prices are expected to move higher year-over-year throug…
  • 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2024 Corn, Soybean, and Wheat Outlook (AP 130-2-06) 1. Tighter margins are expected in 2024 for corn, soybeans, and wheat as commodity prices are forecast to be lower and input prices are expected to be flat. 2. Growing demand for sustainable biodiesel fuels will slow soybean price declines relative to the decline in corn prices. 3. Expect more acres planted to soybeans and fewer acres planted to corn and wheat.
  • 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2024 Cotton Outlook (AP 130-2-04) 1. U.S. cotton acreage and production are likely to decline in 2024 because of lower relative price expectations with competing crops. 2. The cotton production profit margin is likely to be lower in 2024 with high input costs and low cotton prices.
  • 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2024 Dairy Outlook (AP 130-2-09) 1. The outlook for 2024 is an improvement over 2023 as feed costs should decline and milk prices remain at similar levels in 2024. 2. Risks remain as improved margins may spur a strong production response and demand growth is uncertain both domestically and overseas.
  • 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2024 Fruits and Tree Nuts Outlook (AP 130-2-10) 1. High prices for peach producers helped a strong producer price index in the 2022–2023 crop season. The PPI is expected to stay strong in 2024. 2. Favorable prices came from production shortages, caused by bad weather in Q1 of 2023 that devasted the Georgia and South Carolina peach industries. 3. Citrus experienced the lowest production recorded in 50 years, and growers now prefer fresh market c…
  • 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast (AP 130-2) Each year, UGA's agricultural economists develop a comprehensive overview to help various sectors of the agriculture industry navigate the year ahead. As Georgia's land-grant university, the University of Georgia conducts cutting-edge research on critical and emerging issues that are important to the agriculture industry. From this research, UGA provides the best information and education availabl…
  • 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2024 Georgia Agriculture Outlook (AP 130-2-02) 1. Food and commodity prices are expected to return to prepandemic levels. 2. Coupled with increasing costs, the nation’s farm income is expected to decline by 17% between 2022 and 2023. 3. Georgia’s 2023 net farm income is likely to return to the 10-year average of about $3 billion. 4. Potential upsides for Georgia are the possibility of higher demand for poultry, cotton, and peanuts from domes…
  • 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2024 Inputs and Production Expenditures Forecast (AP 130-2-03) 1. Farm input expenses continued to increase in 2023; when adjusted for inflation, they remained below 2014’s record highs. 2. Notable changes in 2023 included reductions in farm interest and fertilizer expenses. 3. Total production expenses are forecast to decline slightly with the largest changes in interest, fertilizer, and pesticide categories.
  • 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2024 Overall U.S. and Georgia Economic Outlook (AP 130-2-01) Each year, UGA's agricultural economists develop a comprehensive overview to help various sectors of the agriculture industry navigate the year ahead. As Georgia's land-grant university, the University of Georgia conducts cutting-edge research on critical and emerging issues that are important to the agriculture industry. From this research, UGA provides the best information and education availabl…
  • 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2024 Poultry Outlook (AP 130-2-07) 1. The broiler chicken outlook in 2024 is neutral to positive; consumer demand should remain steady and feed costs should decrease. 2. Risks to the chicken outlook include significant HPAI outbreaks and expensive housing. 3. Baseline chicken prices are expected to be similar to 1-year-ago levels. Production uncertainty is the main driver of price uncertainty for 2024.
  • 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: 2024 Vegetables and Pulses Outlook (AP 130-2-11) 1. Total harvested area of vegetables and pulses decreased by 3.2% from 2021 to 2022, and fresh and processed vegetable area harvested decreased by 5.1%; the situation is expected to deteriorate in 2024. 2. 2022 total imports of vegetables and pulses were $18.7 billion, an increase of 11.1% compared to 2021; this import trend is expected to continue. 3. Per capita vegetable consumption may increa…
  • 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: Agritourism, Hospitality, and Travel 2024 (AP 130-2-14) 1. Total number of trips among U.S. travel will grow 4.3% in 2024. 2. In 2023, pick-your-own farms and wineries/distilleries/breweries comprised almost 20% of the state’s agritourism attractions. 3. 2023 hotel demand will end with modest growth for rural and urban counties. 4. In 2022, total gross demand for accommodations in Georgia’s rural counties increased 24.7%; there was a 13.7% increase for…
  • 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: Georgia’s Alcoholic Beverage Industry 2024 Outlook (AP 130-2-15) 1. All three alcoholic beverage sectors in Georgia experienced significant growth over the last 20 years and are poised to keep growing. 2. Breweries had the highest total demand in 2022 ($1.1 billion), followed closely by wineries ($970 million). Distilleries saw the highest average 5-year growth rate—6% YOY. 3. Sourcing local ingredients will continue to help beverage producers in the state diff…
  • 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: Green Industry 2024 (AP 130-2-12) 1. 2023 was a good year for many green industry firms, but not as good as 2020–2022. 2. The unknowns going into 2024 include higher inflation and interest rates, mixed signals within the economy, increased input costs, and variability in the housing market. 3. Green industry sales in Georgia are projected to be lower than 2023 levels.
  • 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: Peanut 2024 Outlook (AP 130-2-05) 1. Peanut yields were down in 2023, but demand continues to remain strong and stocks remain steady. Prices are expected to hold strong. 2. The increased cost of production in recent years has remained elevated, with the Farm Bill safety net providing no support. 3. Contracting, controlling costs, and careful evaluation of crop insurance are primary risk-management strategies for producers. Forecas…
  • 2024 Georgia Ag Forecast Series: Timber Situation and 2024 Outlook (AP 130-2-13) 1. Demand for softwood lumber and structural panels is expected to improve as interest rates drop and single-family housing starts resume their long-term trajectory. 2. Increased softwood lumber mill capacity across the South adds upward pressure on pine sawtimber prices; however, the region’s oversupply of sawtimber trees on the stump is expected to exert strong downward pressure on prices. 3. …
  • 2024 Southeast Regional Blueberry Integrated Management Guide (AP 123-4) The 2024 edition of this publication covers integrated pest management information for blueberry producers in the Southeastern U.S. Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and Extension field tests. This publication is intended for use only as a guide. Specific rates and application methods are on the pesticide label, and these are …
  • 2024 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (AP 126-3) This 2024 update to the regional integrated pest management guide provides recommendations for muscadine grape production in the Southeastern U.S. Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and Extension field tests. This publication is intended for use only as a guide. Specific rates and application methods are on the pesticide label,…
  • 2024 Southeast Regional Strawberry Integrated Pest Management Guide Focused on Plasticulture Production (AP 119-5) The 2024 edition of this regional integrated pest management guide provides recommendations for strawberry plasticulture production in the Southeastern U.S. Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and Extension field tests. This publication is intended for use only as a guide. Specific rates and application methods are on the pestic…
  • A Beginner's Guide to Septic Systems (B 1421) Many buildings and homes have on-site wastewater management systems, commonly called septic systems. Because septic systems are buried, it is easy to forget about them as they quietly, elegantly and efficiently maintain human and environmental health. Septic systems are the norm in rural areas, but they can be quite common in urban areas as well. It is important to know if your building is on a se…
  • A Dozen Egg Abnormalities: How They Affect Egg Quality (C 1255) Egg production is the same for each hen whether a farm is producing on a small or large scale. There are a number of egg abnormalities that can occur, and some of these can impact egg quality and reduce the egg's grade based on USDA standards. Abnormalities may be a result of poor management, disease, nutritional deficiencies, or the age of the birds. This publication covers a dozen of the most co…
  • A Guide for Commercial Production of Vinca (B 1219) Vinca is a specialty ornamental crop with very distinct requirements. This bulletin will address those requirements and cover a typical production schedule and crop budget.
  • A Parent's Guide to the "Nitty-Gritty" about Head Lice (C 851) This guide for parents explains what to do -- and what not to do -- when a child gets head lice.
  • A preliminary comparison between manual and mechanical pruning the muscadine juice cultivar 'Carlos' (B 1536) Results from this study are preliminary, as only 2 years of data have been collected. Research over longer periods of time will be more revealing about how mechanical pruning will impact the perennial crop yield and health of the vineyard. Mechanical pruning is an option for dormant pruning ‘Carlos’ in situations where labor is unreliable and/or there is a low labor-to-acreage ratio which preclude…
  • A School's Guide to the 'Nitty-Gritty' about Head Lice (C 850) This guide discusses how to prevent and treat head lice outbreaks in schools.
  • A Simplified Guide to Creating Nutrition Facts Labels (B 1459) Companies and individuals who process and sell food must provide a Nutrition Facts label (NFL) on their food products. However, the technical aspects of creating an NFL and meeting federal and state regulatory requirements have always challenged small and very small processors. The FDA mandates that most packaged food products bear an NFL to inform consumers of the nutritional value of the product…
  • Abiotic Injuries and Disorders of Turfgrasses in Georgia (B 1258) Turfgrass stands can be injured and damaged by biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) agents. Most abiotic diseases cause generalized symptoms such as wilting, yellowing, thinning and the development of smaller than normal grass blades, limited root growth or slow growth. Based solely on symptoms, however, determining whether the condition is caused by a biotic or an abiotic agent can be challen…
  • Acorn Toxicosis in Beef Cattle (C 1074) Autumn and winter are busy seasons for beef cattle producers, and many times grazing and cattle management are not as tightly regulated as in other times of the year. Many Southeastern cattle operations include pastureland that encompasses or borders oak timbers; most North American oak trees are considered toxic. Therefore, when cattle venture into timber land in search of grazing, there is an in…
  • Adoption of Mastitis Control Technologies in the Southeast to Reduce Mastitis and Improve Milk Quality (B 1433) Mastitis continues to be a major livestock disease afflicting the U.S. dairy industry. As the industry strives to improve milk quality to meet consumer as well as exportation demands, the legal limit for bulk tank sec will likely be reduced from 750,000/ml to 400,000/ml in the near future. It is estimated that between 10 and 20% of US dairy farms, mostly located in the Southeast, are currently at …
  • Africanized Honey Bees (B 1290) Honey bees are among the most well-known and economically important insects. They produce honey and beeswax, and pollinate many crops. In spite of the alarm surrounding Africanization, these bees have not caused widespread or permanent chaos. Dramatic stinging incidents do occur, but the quality of life for most people is unaffected. Typically, the commercial beekeeping industries of Africanized a…
  • Agricultural Safety: Preventing Injuries (B 1255) Most farm injuries and fatalities are preventable when you adhere to safe operating practices. The following are general guidelines for improved safety on the farm.
  • Alfalfa Management in Georgia (B 1350) Alfalfa is a high-yielding, perennial legume that is well-suited to hay, silage, or pasture production. Alfalfa is known as the “Queen of Forages” because it produces an excellent quality, high-protein forage. These properties make alfalfa one of the most widely-grown crops in the world.
  • Alternatives to Petroleum-Based Containers for the Nursery Industry (B 1407) Beginning in the 1970s, container nursery production acreage rapidly increased such that container nursery production is now the dominant method of nursery production. As a standard in the industry, plastic nursery containers are lightweight, durable, familiar to growers, work well with automation, and can be reused or recycled. However, they are limited in their ability to be sustainably eco-frie…
  • Alternatives to Synthetic Herbicides for Weed Management in Container Nurseries (B 1410) Weed management is one of the most critical and costly aspects for container nursery production. High irrigation and fertilization rates create a favorable environment for weed growth in addition to crop growth. Weeds can quickly out-compete the crop for light and other resources, reducing the rate and amount of crop growth as well as salability. Weed management in nursery production is most effec…
  • Amino Acid Content in Organic Soybean Meal for the Formulation of Organic Poultry Feed (C 1140) Amino acids are essential building blocks of proteins and are obtained from plant and animal products. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the chicken, while others (essential amino acids) must be supplied in the diet. In organic poultry production, the sources of these essential amino acids must be organic. This publication compares the amino acid content, digestibility, and availability of or…
  • An Analysis of Peanut Price Support Issues - 1996 (RB 425) In this report, analysis of data and results from previous studies are used to provide information concerning the peanut price support issue. This publication is provided for information purposes so that industry leaders may use it in their decision-making process.
  • An Introduction to Conservation Tillage for Vegetable Production (B 1539) Conservation tillage with agronomic crops (i.e., cotton, corn, soybeans, etc.) has been successful in Georgia production. Such production practices have several benefits, the most notable being the elimination of soil erosion. Other benefits include but aren't limited to increases in soil organic matter, maintaining a healthy rhizosphere (root-zone soil), reduction of riparian and waterway polluti…
  • An Introduction to Fiber Hemp Production in Georgia (C 1236) This publication is an introduction to growing industrial hemp for fiber production in Georgia. While not exhaustive, it outlines some of the major production challenges in growing this crop in the Southeastern U.S.
  • An Introduction to Hemp Chemistry and Lab Results (C 1209) With the passage of the 2018 U.S. Farm Bill, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) was declassified as a Schedule I drug and is now legal (with restrictions) for production in the United States. Hemp and marijuana are both Cannabis sativa but are distinguished from each other based on the concentration of the psychoactive compound, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Industrial hemp is defined by law as a …
  • An Introduction to Organic High Tunnel Tomato Production in Georgia and Florida: Horticultural Tactics (B 1552) This publication is an introduction to high tunnel production that focuses on horticulture aspects of organic tomato production. Diseases and insect pests are not covered, but high tunnel construction, siting, shading, fertility, and irrigation of organic tomatoes are addressed.
  • Annual Bluegrass Control in Residential Turfgrass (B 1394) Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) is a problematic winter annual weed in residential turf. Compared to most turfgrasses, annual bluegrass has a lighter green color, coarser leaf texture and produces unsightly seedheads. Contrary to its name, both annual (live for one season) and perennial (live for many seasons) biotypes of annual bluegrass may be found in turf. This publication describes methods of…
  • Annual Bluegrass Control Programs for Georgia Lawns (B 1463) Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) is the most problematic winter weed of lawns in Georgia. Plants have a light green color, coarse leaf texture, and produce unsightly seedheads. Annual bluegrass germinates in fall, overwinters in a vegetative state, and resumes active growth in spring. Competitive growth of populations causes stand thinning of desirable turfgrasses that may predispose lawns to invasion…
  • Annual Plant Diseases Clinic Summary - 2007 (SB 61) This report includes both physical samples submitted to the Plant Disease Clinics and results from analyses of digital samples submitted through the DDDI system in 2007.
  • Annual Ryegrass Control in Georgia Hayfields (C 1078) Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), also referred to as Italian ryegrass, is the most problematic winter annual weed in Georgia hayfields. Seed germinates from September to November when soil temperatures drop below 70 degrees F. Seedlings mature in the fall, overwinter in a vegetative state, and resume active growth in the spring. Annual ryegrass is a prolific seed producer that contributes to …
  • Antibiotic Therapy in Mastitis Control for Lactating and Dry Cows (B 1516) Antibiotic therapy continues to play an important role in the control of mastitis in dairy cows. Lactational therapy is effective against Streptococcus agalactiae but less successful against infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and other causes of mastitis. As a result, alternative treatment strategies have been developed, including a combination of both intramammary infusion and the parente…
  • Aphids on Flowering Ornamental Plants in the Landscape (C 1246) An introduction to and information on the biology, damage, and management of aphids in the ornamental landscape.
  • Application of Imaging Systems for Monitoring Poultry Well-being (C 1256) In commercial poultry houses, bird density and distribution in drinking, feeding, and resting zones are critical factors for evaluating flock productivity, bird health, and well-being. Proper distribution of chickens in the house greatly influences animal well-being and house environmental management. Currently, routine daily inspection of broiler flock distribution in commercial grow-out houses i…
  • Armyworms in Sod (C 1130) There is considerable confusion regarding the life cycle and timing of fall armyworm infestation in turfgrass. It is not unusual for fall armyworms to infest newly planted sod in a home landscape, especially during late summer to fall. When fall armyworm infestation is detected, sod producers are often blamed for selling fall armyworm-infested sod. The reality, however, is that not all fall armywo…
  • Athena: A New Training System for Bunch Wine Grapes (B 1527) The Athena bunch wine grape training system was developed by the University of Georgia to increase crop yield in modest-yielding cultivars. The Athena is a divided-canopy system retrofit to the industry standard single-canopy trellising system with vertical shoot positioning. Athena training involves laying four canes and dividing the canopy through a series of cross arms fastened to the vineyard …
  • Attracting Birds to Your Backyard (C 976) To attract and maintain a bird population, a habitat should provide (1) food, (2) shelter/nesting areas and (3) water. This publication describes several ways to attract birds to your backyard.
  • Avian Academy Module: Poultry Nutrition (B 1471) This module describes the role of energy in the body, how much energy is contained in our foods, and how to correctly identify the key nutrient classes that our bodies require from the foods we eat. All of these components are related to the general makeup of a commercial poultry diet. The module is designed to be one in a series of publications to supply relevant educational content related to th…
  • Azalea Bark Scale (C 1260) Azalea bark scale (ABS) poses a serious threat to azaleas, rhododendron, and Pieris (Andromedas) in Georgia. ABS is a soft scale insect; the nymph and female soft scales secrete a protective coating of waxy crust on their body that cannot be separated from the scale insect. ABS also is found on blueberry, hawthorn, huckleberry, poplar, and willow. ABS is found in cracks or crevices in the surface …
  • Bacterial Diseases of Onions in Georgia (B 1534) Bacterial diseases are among the major production and economic challenges that onion growers face in Georgia. There are six bacterial diseases that commonly affect onion foliage and bulbs in the state. These diseases are difficult to manage and rely mainly on cultural practices and the use of protective bactericides. Host resistance is limited with little information on pathogen biology and the in…
  • Bacterial Leaf Scorch of Blueberry (C 922) A new disease has been identified in the Georgia blueberry production region. This disease has been named “bacterial leaf scorch." This publication includes identification and control methods.
  • Bagworms in Urban Landscapes (C 1237) An introduction to bagworms, along with their biology, how they damage landscapes, and management options.
  • Baleage Production and Use (B 1532) Implementing a baleage system takes consideration and planning. Producers need to weigh the benefits, challenges, and costs to optimize their forage production and livestock feeding operations. Baleage does have additional costs associate with it—including a wrapper, plastic, and plastic disposal. It also takes different management strategies to store and feed baleage to prevent spoilage when comp…
  • Baleage: Frequently Asked Questions (B 1508) Baled silage, or “baleage,” is an excellent method for forage harvest, storage, and feed efficiency. Conserving forage as baleage enables harvests to be performed on a timely basis, allowing harvests to capture higher quality forage. This publication focuses on common questions about making and feeding baleage.
  • Basic Introduction to Broiler Housing Environmental Control (B 1264) Research on improving broiler housing is ongoing. Energy costs are becoming more significant to the grower's bottom line and housing construction, equipment and operation will be paramount in helping to make sure the houses are operated as efficiently as possible. As technology and equipment is redesigned and developed, researchers will continue to examine how broiler housing can be heated, cooled…
  • Basic Nutritional Guidelines for Equine Management (B 1356) Providing proper and adequate nutrition is a challenge all horse owners must face. Understanding your horse’s nutritional needs is important, not only to optimize performance, but also to ensure your horse’s safety. The following guidelines emphasize key points to keep in mind when determining how to meet your horse’s nutritional requirements.
  • Basic Principles of Pruning Woody Plants (B 949) Pruning is one of the most important cultural practices for maintaining woody plants, including ornamental trees and shrubs, fruits and nuts. Proper pruning requires a basic understanding of how plants respond to various pruning cuts. The principles and guidelines in this publication will help you master common pruning techniques.
  • Basics of Sausage Making: Formulation, Processing and Safety (B 1437) This bulletin is written to provide some of the basic information required to make various types of sausage. It is for those who enjoy good homemade sausage and who wish to obtain the greatest satisfaction from the trimmings and variety meats generated from farm slaughtered livestock or the results of a good hunt. The recipes listed in this publication collected from various sources and have been…
  • Be Aware of Your Indoor Air (C 2579) Did you know the air inside buildings is nearly always more polluted than outside air? Learn the types of indoor air pollution and what you can do. This publication was originally published by the LSU AgCenter and released for use in the state of Georgia by UGA Extension Housing & Environment Specialist Pamela Turner.
  • Beef Cattle Showmanship: Tips for Showring Success (B 1554) The way exhibitors present cattle has changed tremendously in a century. Youth beef shows often have showmanship divisions that are very competitive. Being a showmanship division winner is a great achievement and worthy goal. New exhibitors should study and practice these basic skills for the best chance at success.
  • Beef Management Calendar (B 1161) This calendar contains a monthly listing of the common management practices needed for commercial beef herd production in Georgia. Some are recommended at a certain time of the year and others are recommended when calves are a certain age or at a certain point in their reproductive cycle.
  • Before You Invest (C 1110) Saving and investing are critical steps to achieving your financial goals. Although these terms are often used interchangeably, they are quite different. Understanding the differences between saving and investing is the first step toward reaching your financial goals.
  • Beneficial Insects of Pecan Trees (C 1229) Accurately distinguishing insect pests from beneficial arthropods is a critical component in the implementation of an effective and sustainable pest management program. This circular provides a succinct and practical summary of natural enemies commonly found in pecan orchards in the Southeast U.S.
  • Beneficial Insects, Spiders, and Mites in the Southeast (C 1055) The purpose of this guide is to help users identify insects, spiders and mites that are beneficial to the garden. Such beneficials help manage pests that can damage plants. Tips to conserve and protect beneficials are also included.
  • Bermudagrass Control in Southern Lawns (B 1393) Although improved common (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) and hybrid bermudagrasses (Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) have desirable qualities as turfgrasses for heat, drought and wear tolerance, bermudagrass is a problematic weed when grown in mixed stands with other turf species. Selective control of bermudagrass is difficult but often warranted in order to maintain acceptable quali…
  • Bermudagrass in Georgia (B 911) Bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) is an important warm-season, perennial, sod-forming forage grass in Georgia and throughout the Southeast. Bermudagrass is productive from spring until fall and is well-suited for grazing or hay production. Several varieties of bermudagrass are used in Georgia, ranging from common bermudagrass to the high-yielding, good quality hybrid bermudagrasses. The best variety to …
  • Best Management Practices for Storing and Applying Poultry Litter (B 1230) The nutrients and organic materials found in poultry litter/manure are extremely beneficial by-products, as evidenced by the fact that years of application have transformed north Georgia from a severely depleted landscape in the 1920s and 1930s to a productive and green one today. Over-application or improper storage of poultry litter, however, can cause nutrient contamination of the state's water…
  • Best Management Practices in the Landscape (C 873) Research has shown that if you properly select, install and maintain ornamental plant, you greatly increase their survival and performance in the landscape. Following BMPs (Best Management Practices) not only conserve moisture in the landscape but will assure overall health and vigor of the ornamental plants.
  • Best Practices ATP and Protein Swabbing in Produce Packinghouses (C 1196) Many third-party audits, buyers, and standard operating procedures for produce packinghouses or other food facilities require regular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or protein swabs to verify the effectiveness of the cleaning and sanitation protocols. This video demonstrates how to collect ATP and protein swabs, how to interpret swab results, and provides advice to help determine an acceptable basel…
  • Best Practices for Growing, Harvesting, and Handling Produce in the Field and the Packinghouse (B 1515) Under the Food Safety Modernization Act's Produce Safety Rule, produce operations are mandated to provide training to their workers on the safe handling of produce in fields and in packing operations. Currently, there are few, if any, materials available for these operations to use. As we have conducted Produce Safety Alliance Grower Training across Georgia and throughout other areas, we have been…
  • Best Practices of Integrated Mosquito Management (C 1154) This circular provides a basic summary of the best management practices of integrated mosquito management. These practices begin with education and communication and progress through surveillance, source reduction, larviciding, and adulticiding. The circular presents guidelines that communities can use to help develop the most effective mosquito management program possible with the resources avail…
  • Best Practices: Animal Intrusion in Specialty Crops (C 1170) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXo-eSyP-8E
  • Best Practices: Postharvest Water Sample Collection (C 1192) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LLt0IKlQH1o
  • Best Practices: Preharvest Water Sample Collection (C 1191) https://youtu.be/F-csM0EbFPM
  • Biochar Basics Series: Biochar Basics: An Introduction to Biochar as a Container Substrate Component (C 1292-01) Additional author: Mengmeng Gu, Professor, Colorado State University Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture. Biochar has been proposed to be beneficial to the environment and plants. However, many people do not know what biochar is, what can biochar do, or how biochar can be used. In Part 1 of this publication, we provide introductory information on biochar used to partially replac…
  • Biochar Basics Series: Biochar Basics: Biochar Properties and Making the Right Biochar Mix (C 1292-04) Additional author: Mengmeng Gu, Professor, Colorado State University Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture. Container substrates must fulfill several functions for plant growth: create a suitable environment for root growth, physically support them, hold nutrients and water, and enable gas exchange between the roots and the atmosphere. Suitable physical and chemical container subst…
  • Biochar Basics Series: Biochar Basics: Effects on Plant Disease (C 1292-03) Additional author: Mengmeng Gu, Professor, Colorado State University Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture. How does biochar play a role in a plant-disease system? Briefly, before the pathogen infects plants, biochar can improve plant growth by increasing water and nutrient uptake, a healthier plant may be more resistant to attack. On the other hand, after a pathogen infects the pl…
  • Biochar Basics Series: Biochar Basics: Effects on Plant Growth (C 1292-02) Additional author: Mengmeng Gu, Professor, Colorado State University Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture. Is Biochar Good or Bad for Plant Growth? Mixing biochar into soilless substrates may have negative, zero, or positive effects on plant growth. Biochar made from green waste mixed with peat at 50% by volume has been shown to increase prayer plants' total biomass and leaf surf…
  • Biology and Management of Carpenter Ants (B 1225) Carpenter ants are so-called because of their habit of chewing wood to create nest sites. They do not eat wood, like termites, but they excavate it with their strong, saw-like jaws to create random galleries where they nest. Carpenter ants are also a nuisance because of their abundance and large size.
  • Biology and Management of Scale Insects in Ornamentals (C 1186) Scale insects are common pests of landscape trees and shrubs that are often overlooked when scouting. Scales can be responsible for chlorosis, branch die-back, and ultimately, plant death. Scales are broadly categorized as either soft scales or armored scales. Soft scales produce a soft, cottony, powdery, or waxy substance that cannot be separated from the scale body. Common soft scales in Georgia…
  • Biology and Management of Stubby-Root Nematodes on Onion (C 1211) Stubby-root nematodes, Paratrichodorus minor, are considered an important pest of onions in Georgia. Low to high population densities of this nematode were observed in multiple fields in the Vidalia area causing damage to sweet onions. The most obvious aboveground symptoms of stubby-root nematode nematode infection are poor, stunted growth of onion seedlings. Stubby-root nematodes have a wide host…
  • Biology and Management of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug in Ornamental Landscapes (C 1248) The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, is a landscape and agricultural pest in the United States. It was introduced from Asia in the mid-1990s, and quickly spread to the entire United States because of its overwintering behavior. They seek dark and dry sites—such as a vehicle parked near trees—in the fall in which to overwinter. It is established in the Piedmont region of the Ge…
  • Biology and Management of Thrips Affecting the Production Nursery and Landscape (C 1158) Thrips are tiny, cigar-shaped insects belonging to the order Thysanoptera, whose name refers to the fringed wings of insects in this order. About 5000 species of thrips are known, and many cause damage to cultivated plants by feeding or vectoring plant diseases. Some thrips are predatory. It is usually difficult to identify thrips species. Although they are winged, thrips are generally weak fliers…
  • Biology of Subterranean Termites in the Eastern United States (B 1209) Subterranean termites are social insects that live in societies whose members are mostly mature individuals. Their colonies, which can contain thousands to millions of termites, are formidable, even though each individual termite is soft-bodied and delicate. This publication contains comprehensive information about subterranean termites in the Eastern U.S.
  • Biomapping: An Effective Tool for Pathogen Control During Poultry Processing (C 1200) U.S. poultry processors must meet regulatory requirements for Salmonella and Camplylobacter prevalence in all of the poultry products that they produce. Monitoring the efficacy of antimicrobial interventions (biomapping) during processing assists in meeting performance standards and improving microbiological quality of the products through better process control.
  • Biosecurity Basics for Poultry Growers (B 1306) Biosecurity refers to procedures used to prevent the introduction and spread of disease-causing organisms in poultry flocks. Because of the concentration in size and location of poultry flocks in current commercial production operations and the inherent disease risks associated with this type of production, it is imperative that poultry producers practice daily biosecurity measures.
  • Biosecurity for On-Farm Pathogen Control in Poultry (C 1195) Human campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are two of the most commonly reported gastrointestinal infections worldwide and poultry meat has been identified as the main source of infection. Controlling pathogen colonies of public health concern such as Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry flocks on the farm is critical for a successful overall food safety program. Biosecurity on the farm can con…
  • Bits 101 (B 1379) Bit selection is a critical area of consideration for riders of all disciplines and levels. For many horse enthusiasts, lack of knowledge about bit types and functions, as well as common misconceptions held in the horse industry, can make choosing an appropriate bit a difficult process.
  • Blackberry Harvesting and Postharvest Handling (C 1282) This circular covers basic postharvest harvesting, handling and cold storage principles for fresh-market blackberries to ensure the highest possible shelf-life and quality while minimizing postharvest losses. Blackberries are harvested in Georgia from mid-May to August. Most varieties grown in Georgia were developed by the University of Arkansas breeding program. The blackberry varieties cultivate…
  • Blanc du Bois (C 1274) ‘Blanc du Bois’ has made a significant contribution to wine production in southeastern regions where Pierce’s disease is prevalent. Though possessing resistance or tolerance to Pierce’s disease, Phylloxera, and powdery mildew, this cultivar is not without fault, and it does require an intensive integrated pest management (IPM) program. We cover here the major issues observed with this cultivar.
  • Blister Beetles in Georgia Alfalfa Hay (C 917) Blister beetles sometimes infest forage crops such as alfalfa, where they may become incorporated in hay. This publication discusses biology, cause of illness and management of blister beetles.
  • Blossom-End Rot and Calcium Nutrition of Pepper and Tomato (C 938) The purpose of this publication is to introduce the problem of blossom-end rot and provide a guide to effectively diagnose and treat this problem.
  • Blueberry Harvesting and Postharvest Handling (C 1269) This circular covers basic postharvest harvesting, handling and cold storage principles for fresh-market blueberries to ensure the highest possible shelf-life and quality while minimizing postharvest losses. Blueberries are harvested in Georgia from late April to late June. Southern highbush varieties are harvested early in the season while rabbiteyes ripen toward the end of the season. It is impo…
  • Blueberry Irrigation Water Quality (C 1105) This circular is a review of water quality standards, calculations, and recommendations for water that will be used for irrigation of blueberries.
  • Blueberry Pre-Establishment (C 1267) This publication covers the considerations producers need to have in mind when choosing a site to plant blueberry. It describes the soil characteristics that are needed to grow and produce blueberry, how to identify good soil, soil drainage, and how prior crops could affect blueberry productivity.
  • Blueberry Production (C 1278) This publication covers a brief history of the development of blueberries, plus general production requirements such as varieties, chill hours, soil considerations, etc. The southern highbush blueberry is a hybrid that requires fewer chill units compared to northern highbush types, allowing the state of Florida, southern areas, and Georgia to produce fruits in the U.S. market during March, April, …
  • Body Condition Scoring Beef Cows (B 1308) Body condition scoring (BCS) is an easy and economical way to evaluate the body fat percentage of a cow. Cows can then be sorted and fed according to nutritional needs. Body condition scoring can be an effective tool for cattle producers who cannot weigh cattle, and it may be an even better measurement of cow condition and reproductive performance than weight. Most studies show that body condition…
  • Breathe Easy: Understanding and Controlling Asthma (C 1270) Asthma is a lung disease that affects millions of adults and children, and can be triggered by numerous indoor pollutants such as mold, cockroaches, dust mites, pet dander, and secondhand smoke. There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed through medication and avoiding allergens that can trigger an attack.
  • Budding and Grafting of Pecan (B 1376) Individuals who propagate trees have their own personal preferences with regard to propagation methods. As with many practices related to pecan production, timing is important for successful propagation.
  • Building Baby's Brain Series: Buffering the Brain From Toxic Stress (C 1053-12) Children who live in unpredictable worlds, who do not have the opportunity to form a secure attachment with a caregiver, or who live in an unsafe physical environment live in a constant state of heightened stress. This severe, chronic stress can have profound and long-lasting negative effects on brain development. Buffering children from toxic stress and helping reduce that stress to more tolerabl…
  • Building Baby's Brain Series: Creating Consistency to Aid Brain Development in Babies (C 1053-11) The developing brain thrives on repetition. When a baby experiences the same things over and over, the pathways of connections in her brain become stronger and more complex. One of the best ways to provide repetition for the developing brain is to create consistency in the child's world. This publication explains the components of consistency and what you can do to create a positive and predictabl…
  • Building Baby's Brain Series: Is Breast Milk Best? (C 1053-07) Deciding how to feed your baby is one of the most important decisions expectant parents make during pregnancy. The first year of your baby's life is a time of rapid growth. By making sure your baby gets the nourishment he needs, he'll be able to develop to his fullest potential. This publication address questions you may have regarding breast- vs. bottle-feeding and what you can to do enhance your…
  • Building Baby's Brain Series: Nurturing Positive Relationships (C 1053-09) Over the first months of life, babies build relationships with the adults who care for them. These early attachment relationships matter. Babies who form warm, loving relationships feel secure exploring and learning. Babies who live in an unpredictable world tend to form insecure attachments. They learn that the world is unreliable and expect later relationships to be negative. Here's what you nee…
  • Building Baby's Brain Series: Prime Times for Learning (C 1053-02) Research in brain development shows there are certain windows of opportunity, known as sensitive periods, when certain parts of the brain develop most quickly. These windows are prime times for learning certain skills because the brain is ready to build networks of connections in response to what the five senses absorb. Here are some of those prime times, what to expect, and what you can do to imp…
  • Building Baby's Brain Series: The Basics of Your Baby's Brain Development (C 1053-01) From the moment a baby is born, every experience taken in by the five senses helps strengthen the connections that guide development. No two brains are alike! Each child's brain creates individual pathways of connections based on specific experiences. Here are some general tips you can use to help wire the brain for success.
  • Building Baby's Brain Series: The Importance of Play in Baby's Brain Development (C 1053-10) Play is one of the most essential activities babies do. Through play, babies and young children have the opportunity to experience new things and practice existing skills, which strengthens networks of brain connections. This publication explains what babies learn while playing and what you can do to help build brain connections through play.
  • Building Baby's Brain Series: The Role of Music in Brain Development (C 1053-06) Children who grow up listening to music develop strong music-related connections in the brain. Some of these music pathways actually affect the way we think. Listening to classical music seems to improve our spatial reasoning, at least for a short time. And learning to play an instrument may have an even longer effect on certain thinking skills. Here is some information on how music affects our br…
  • Building Baby's Brain Series: What Child Care Can Do to Support Brain Development (C 1053-04) Child care providers play an important role in nurturing children's healthy brain development. When it comes to supporting healthy brain development, the type of child care is less important than the quality of care a child receives. This publication will help you understand the components of quality child care and the effects of low-quality child care on brain development.
  • Building Baby's Brain Series: What Parents Can Do to Support Healthy Brain Development (C 1053-03) All parents want their children to be smart and successful. Researchers have found that a child's brain continues to develop long after birth. Parents can do many things to support their child's healthy brain development, beginning before birth and continuing until their child is an adult. This publication explains some of the things you can do to ensure healthy brain development for your child.
  • Building Baby's Brain Series: What to Eat When You're Expecting (C 1053-08) Your diet is important throughout your pregnancy. However, there are some special needs to consider during each trimester. You can help your baby get a healthy start in life by eating a variety of nutritious foods and making sure you gain enough wait. This publication explains what to eat for each trimester and offers insight on eating the right foods.
  • Building Radon Safe (C 1301) How Radon-Resistant New Construction can Make Homes Safer and Save Money. Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that forms when uranium breaks down in soil, rock, and water. This naturally occurring radioactive gas is the leading cause of lung cancer in nonsmokers and the second leading cause of lung cancer overall. The Benefits of Building a Radon Resistant Home are that it reduces a fam…
  • Bull Buyer's Guide (C 553) Bull procurement decisions can greatly impact your future calf crops and herd genetics for many years. Selecting and buying a herd bull is the quickest way to make genetic improvement in your herd. The selection process must include looking for those traits that are economically important and highly heritable. Demand and buy bulls with total performance that will improve your herd. This publicatio…
  • Calculating the Fertilizer Value of Broiler Litter (C 933) This publication gives a procedure to calculate the value of broiler litter based on prevailing retail selling prices of commercial fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
  • Calf Health Basics (B 1500) Calf health is a key variable for calf growth and performance. Producers should not expect to know all calf health issues, causes, and the most successful treatments. Instead, a producer's main goal should be to accurately identify and differentiate normal from abnormal in a calf's physical state and behavior. The topics discussed in this publications are intended to help producers notice key area…
  • Calibration Method for Sprayers and Other Liquid Applicators (C 683) This publication discusses the proper calibration methods sprayers and other liquid applicators.
  • Calibration of Center Pivot Irrigation Systems for Wastewater Applications (B 1458) This publication was developed to provide farmers applying animal wastewater with step-by-step instructions to calibrate their center pivot irrigation systems. Within each step, the publication provides reasoning for that step and any equations to calculate the needed values. Along with instructions, the publication also provides a fillable table to collect data and charts to help determine applic…
  • Calibration of Manure Spreaders (C 825) This publication primarily focuses on rear discharge, twin spinner spreaders common for poultry litter application in the southeast.
  • Cane Blight of Blackberry (C 894) Cane blight can be a major disease of blackberry in the Southeast, resulting in severe losses. The wet, humid conditions observed in Georgia and other southeastern states allow for significant losses following pruning or other injuries to the primocane.
  • Canola Production in Georgia (B 1331) Growing canola profitably takes planning and good management. All aspects of production from seed selection to harvest to marketing must be taken into account if the grower is to make a profit with this crop. Land preparation, fertility management, weed and other pest control, and timely harvest and marketing are all components of a good canola production package. Before you grow canola, dedicate …
  • Cantaloupe and Specialty Melons (B 1179) This publication was compiled to meet the needs of the growing cantaloupe industry in Georgia. Its 10 chapters represent the latest information available on successful cantaloupe and specialty melon production.
  • Care of Holiday and Gift Plants (C 951) Flowering and foliage plants can make welcome gifts. How long they remain attractive may be directly related to the care and handling they are given. This publication describes ways to properly care for holiday and gift plants to ensure maximum longevity.
  • Care of Ornamental Plants in the Landscape (B 1065) Most established ornamental plants in the landscape require care to stay healthy and attractive. Regular fertilization, pruning, watering, mulching and pest control are all part of a good landscape management program. This publication provides guidelines for the care of established ornamental plants in the landscape. Low-maintenance alternatives to traditional cultural practices are discussed thro…
  • Caring for the Older Horse: Common Problems and Solutions (B 1368) Horses have relatively long life spans compared to other livestock and companion animals, often living into their late 20s and early 30s. Many horses have productive careers into their 20s. In fact, in many disciplines, horses do not peak until their teenage years. Good nutrition, maintenance and veterinary care allow horses to lead longer and more productive lives. However, as horses age, their n…
  • Cation Exchange Capacity and Base Saturation (C 1040) Cation exchange capacity (CEC) is a measure of the total negative charges within the soil that adsorb plant nutrient cations such as calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+) and potassium (K+). As such, the CEC is a property of a soil that describes its capacity to supply nutrient cations to the soil solution for plant uptake.
  • Center Pivot Calibration for Wastewater: A Field Reference Guide (C 1084) This publication is intended to be used by those familiar with calibrating a center pivot system. The circular lists the steps, calculations, and charts needed to calibrate a center pivot irrigation system pumping wastewater, without explanations of the process itself. The PDF version contains worksheets and formulas. The step-by-step calibration procedure includes determining: the wetted diamete…
  • Centipedegrass Decline (C 1003) Centipedegrass is ideal for the homeowner who wants a lawn that needs little care. It can be established by either seed or vegetative parts and does not require much fertilizer. Compared to other lawn grasses, it is moderately resistant to insects and diseases. Although centipedegrass is a relatively low maintenance grass, proper management is still required.
  • Chainsaw Chains and Bars (C 1208) The action end of a chainsaw, or the part that cuts, is made of the bar and the chain. Chainsaw chains come in many sizes and configurations and not all saws can handle all bars. To make the right choices for the job, a saw operator should be aware of the cutter type, pitch, gauge, and cutter configuration when purchasing a chain or a chainsaw.
  • Chainsaw Safety and Tree Cleanup (C 1198) Many people help with tree cleanup after storms pass through. Some are citizen volunteers, and others are private and public sector workers who may or may not have experience with chainsaws. This presentation covers the information every chainsaw operator needs to know before turning on the saw. Topics include personal protective equipment, the five essential safety features of a chainsaw, safe ca…
  • Chainsaw Safety: Always Use Your Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) (C 1148) Operating a chainsaw is inherently dangerous. Chainsaw cuts are always serious, but this is not the only hazard a saw operator faces. Saw operators are often struck by falling limbs and trunks as the tree moves during felling. Saw operators may fall off ladders or out of trees, or they may trip while moving through brush and uneven ground. Even when the tree is on the ground, danger lurks in wood …
  • Chainsaw Safety: Preventing Common Tree Felling Accidents (C 1243) Accidents are common when felling a tree with a chainsaw. Fortunately, most of them can be prevented. Tips for preventing kickback, barber chair, entanglement, setback, and stump jump are presented in this publication, along with techniques for safely releasing spring poles.
  • Chainsaw Safety: The Five Step Tree Felling Plan (C 1220) Felling trees is dangerous. Accidents abound when chainsaws and falling timber combine. The five step tree felling plan is a safe and effective way to take down a tree with a chainsaw. Rigorous application of this method will help the saw operator identify and mitigate hazards while dropping the tree as planned.
  • Chemical Nematicides for Control of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Georgia Vegetable Crops (B 1502) Soil fumigants alone or in combination with nonfumigant nematicides can provide vegetable growers effective and reliable control of plant-parasitic nematodes, profitable yield and product quality, and increased profits. Treating soil with fumigant nematicides has been very beneficial to vegetable growers in Georgia, but environmental concerns may restrict the broad usage of these products. Telone …
  • Chemigation in Georgia (B 1298) Chemigation is an inclusive term referring to the application of a chemical into or through an irrigation system. It includes the application of fertilizers, acids, chlorine and pesticides. Chemigation can save time, reduce labor requirements, and conserve energy and materials. Chemigation is beneficial, however, only to the extent that the irrigation system is adequately designed, fully functiona…
  • Childproofing Your Home: A Room-by-Room Safety Checklist (C 1049) Nearly 2.3 million children are accidentally injured every year and more than 2,500 are killed, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Since one of the biggest threats to children is an injury occurring at home, it is important to take preventative steps to childproof your home. While this may seem like a daunting task at first, this checklist includes basic tips, broken…
  • Chilli Thrips: Biology and Management in the Nursery (C 1210) Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis, is an invasive thrips species in the U.S. Currently, chilli thrips infest more than 150 crops worldwide, including strawberries, cotton, tea, citrus, and peppers, as well as many ornamental plants. The pest has become increasingly problematic in nurseries because of its wide host range, small size, and rapid reproduction and development. Chilli thrips quickly …
  • Choosing a Landscape Irrigation Contractor (C 1056) Selecting a qualified irrigation contractor is very important. There are many irrigation products available and the installation process requires skill, knowledge and equipment. This publication outlines general considerations for purchasers of a landscape irrigation system. It also underscores the importance of considering the cost of water when selecting a contractor and protecting desirable tre…
  • Citrus Fruit for Southern and Coastal Georgia (B 804) Citrus plants are very versatile around the home and may be used as individual specimens, hedges or container plants. Their natural beauty and ripe fruits make them attractive additions to the South Georgia home scene. Cold-hardy varieties that receive recommended care may grow successfully in the coastal and extreme southern areas of the state (and to a lesser degree in more northern locations).
  • Classic City Garden Awards Series: 2013's Best New Plants from the Trial Gardens at the University of Georgia (AP 116-1) This publication showcases the plants that were awarded the “Classic City Award” in 2013.
  • Classic City Garden Awards Series: 2014's Best New Plants from the Trial Gardens at the University of Georgia (AP 116-2) This publication showcases the plants that were awarded the “Classic City Award” in 2014.
  • Classic City Garden Awards Series: 2015's Best New Plants from the Trial Gardens at the University of Georgia (AP 116-3) This publication showcases the plants that were awarded the “Classic City Award” in 2015.
  • Classic City Garden Awards Series: 2016's Best New Plants from the Trial Gardens at the University of Georgia (AP 116-4) New ornamentals have long been considered the lifeblood of the green industry. This publication contains recommendations for best-performing new annuals based on research conducted at the Trial Gardens at the University of Georgia, showcasing the plants that were awarded the Classic City Award in 2016.
  • Classic City Garden Awards Series: 2017's Best New Plants from the Trial Gardens at the University of Georgia (AP 116-5) New ornamentals have long been considered the lifeblood of the green industry. This publication contains recommendations for best-performing new annuals based on research conducted at the Trial Gardens at the University of Georgia, showcasing the plants that were awarded Classic City Awards in 2017.
  • Classic City Garden Awards Series: 2018's Best New Plants from the Trial Gardens at the University of Georgia (AP 116-6) New ornamentals have long been considered the lifeblood of the green industry. This publication contains recommendations for best-performing new annuals based on research conducted at the Trial Gardens at the University of Georgia, showcasing the plants that were awarded Classic City Awards in 2018.
  • Classic City Garden Awards Series: 2019's Best New Plants from the Trial Gardens at the University of Georgia (AP 116-7) New ornamentals have long been considered the lifeblood of the green industry. This publication contains recommendations for best-performing new annuals based on research conducted at the Trial Gardens at the University of Georgia, showcasing the plants that were awarded Classic City Awards in 2019.
  • Classic City Garden Awards Series: 2020's Best New Plants from the Trial Gardens at the University of Georgia (AP 116-8) New ornamentals have long been considered the lifeblood of the green industry. This publication contains recommendations for best-performing new annuals based on research conducted at the Trial Gardens at the University of Georgia, showcasing the plants that were awarded Classic City Awards in 2020.
  • Clean Labeling and the Real Food Movement (B 1476) "'Clean label' foods" generally refers to food products that are simple, natural, and minimally processed. Clean labeling is a food industry movement that caters to the consumer who wants food products to be as "real" and preservative-free as possible. Although "clean labeling" is becoming more ubiquitous among food companies, there is no formal definition for the term. It originates from consumer…
  • Cleaning Healthy, Cleaning Green (C 1114) People spend an average of 90 percent of their time indoors. Studies conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) show levels of several common organic pollutants to be two to five times higher inside homes than outside. Many of these pollutants come from the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from household cleaning products. Indoor pollutants can be reduced by limiting the numb…
  • Clover Management in Pecan Orchards (B 1360) An orchard floor provides a working surface for orchard operations and influences activities in the trees, which produce the crop. An efficient orchard floor cover does not compete heavily with trees for moisture and nutrients and is compatible with orchard insect populations. While weed competition with tree roots is significant throughout the life of the tree, in a newly planted orchard, weed co…
  • CNMP Development Checklist for Dry Litter Poultry CAFOs (C 886) This publication outlines the information needed to develop a Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan (CNMP) for dry poultry litter operations.
  • Coexisting with Neighbors: A Poultry Farmer's Guide (B 1263) Conflict prevention measures can be both tangible and intangible in nature. Communication skills and disseminating information may be as important as minimizing odors or pests through improved management practices. The following are practices and suggestions that can help poultry farmers maintain or improve neighbor relations. Proper manure handling practices are foremost points to consider in avo…
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: ¿Cómo se siente estar lleno? (C 1037-12-SP) Para promover hábitos sanos, anime a su familia a dejar de comer cuando ya estén llenos.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: ¿Cuánta actividad física? (C 1037-22-SP) Para mantener a su familia en forma, anímelos a mantenerse físicamente activos.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: ¿Cuánta Agua Debería Beber? (C 1037-02-SP) Beber agua y mantenerse hidratados es importante para mantener a su familia sana.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: ¿Qué Comer en el Desayuno? (C 1037-08-SP) Desayunar ayuda a su familia a comenzar el día de manera sana.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Comer una Variedad de Alimentos es Sano (C 1037-04-SP) Para incentivar a su familia a mantenerse sana, coman una dieta variada.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Comer una Variedad de Alimentos Puede ser Divertido (C 1037-05-SP) Motive a su familia a mantenerse saludables comiendo una variedad de alimentos.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Cómo Comer Sano Sin Gastar Mucho (C 1037-17-SP) Para incentivar a su familia a mantenerse sana, coman una dieta variada.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Consejos para Servir Porciones Más Pequeñas (C 1037-14-SP) Promueva hábitos alimenticios saludables motivando a su familia a dejar de comer cuando se sientan llenos.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Desayune (C 1037-09-SP) Desayunar ayuda a su familia a empezar el día de una manera saludable.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: El Agua Ayuda a los Niños a Tener Éxito (C 1037-03-SP) Beber agua y mantenerse hidratados es importante para mantener a su familia sana.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: El Desayuno es el Combustible para su Día (C 1037-06-SP) Desayunar ayuda a su familia a comenzar el día de manera sana.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Es Importante Dejar de Comer Cuando Estamos Llenos (C 1037-11-SP) Para promover hábitos sanos, anime a su familia a dejar de comer cuando ya estén lleno.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Hacer el Desayuno Puede ser Divertido (C 1037-10-SP) Desayunar ayuda a su familia a empezar el día de una manera saludable.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: La Actividad Física Enseña Nuevas Habilidades (C 1037-20-SP) Para mantener a su familia en forma, anímelos a mantenerse físicamente activos.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Los Beneficios de Mantenerse Físicamente Activo (C 1037-19-SP) Mantenga a su familia en forma motivándolos a estar físicamente activos.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Motive a Su Hijo a Ser Activo (C 1037-23-SP) Para mantener a su familia en forma, anímelos a mantenerse físicamente activos.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Por Qué es Importante Dejar de Comer Cuando Estamos Llenos (C 1037-15-SP) Para promover hábitos sanos, anime a su familia a dejar de comer cuando ya estén lleno.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Sea un Modelo de Conductas Alimenticias Sanas (C 1037-18-SP) Para incentivar a su familia a mantenerse sana, coman una dieta variada.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Seguridad y Actividad Física (C 1037-21-SP) Para mantener a su familia en forma, anímelos a mantenerse físicamente activos.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Tamaños Adecuados de las Porciones (C 1037-13-SP) Para promover hábitos sanos, anime a su familia a dejar de comer cuando ya estén llenos.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Tendencias Actuales de Actividad Física (C 1037-24-SP) Para mantener a su familia en forma, anímelos a mantenerse físicamente activos.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Tomar Agua es Importante (C 1037-01-SP) Tomar agua y mantenerse hidratado es una parte importante para mantener a su familia saludable.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Un Desayuno Sano Alimenta el Cerebro (C 1037-07-SP) Desayunar ayuda a su familia a comenzar el día de manera sana.
  • Coma Saludable Mantengase Activo Series: Una Variedad de Alimentos para Niños Quisquillosos o Exigentes (C 1037-16-SP) Motive a su familia a mantenerse saludable comiendo una variedad de alimentos.
  • Commercial Blueberry Inventory and Prospectus, Georgia, 2002 (RR 693) Both rabbiteye and highbush blueberries are produced in Georgia. The plants can produce a commercially viable crop for years. The long-term nature of the investment in the blueberry orchard calls for periodic updates on the situation of the blueberry industry. Information about the location of plants, varieties, plant age, and the use of cultural practices are important in decisions to alloc…
  • Commercial Freeze Protection for Fruits and Vegetables (B 1479) Freeze protection efforts should be based on the type of freeze, temperature, and wind speed that is impacting your crop. To apply frost protection, consider your crop value, the freeze protection capacity of your system, and the crop's susceptibility to injury at each growth stage.
  • Commercial Okra Production (C 627) Okra is grown in every county in Georgia. Okra can be a profitable crop when recommended production practices are followed.
  • Commercial Pecan Spray Guide (B 841) This publication provides guidance for insect, disease, and weed control in commercial pecan orchards for 2024.
  • Commercial Production and Management of Cabbage and Leafy Greens (B 1181) The 11 topics covered in this publication are all integral parts of a successful cabbage/leafy greens management program. Each topic focuses on a particular aspect of production and provides information on the latest management technology for that phase of production. It is hoped that the information contained in this publication will assist growers in improving profitability.
  • Commercial Production and Management of Carrots (B 1175) The 13 topics covered in this publication are all integral parts of a successful carrot management program. Each topic is designed to focus on a particular aspect of production and provide the latest management technology for that phase of production. It is hoped that the information contained in this publication will assist growers in improving profitability in carrot production.
  • Commercial Production and Management of Pumpkins and Gourds (B 1180) The seven topics covered in this publication are all integral parts of a successful pumpkin/gourd management program. Each topic is designed to focus on a particular aspect of production and provide the latest management technology for that phase of production. It is hoped that the information contained in this publication will assist growers in improving profitability.
  • Commercial Production of Vegetable Transplants (B 1144) Producing greenhouse-grown containerized transplants is an increasingly popular way to establish vegetable crops. Compared to field-grown transplants, greenhouse transplants have several advantages. They can be produced earlier and more uniformly than field-grown plants. Their growth can be controlled more easily through fertility and water management and they can be held longer and harvested when…
  • Commercial Snap Bean Production in Georgia (B 1369) This is an in-depth publication covering Culture and Varieties, Soils and Fertility, Irrigation, Sprayers, Diseases, Insect Management, Weed Control, Food Safety and Sanitation, Harvest/Post-Harvest and Waste Management, Marketing, Production Costs, and Organic Production of commercial snap bean production in Georgia.
  • Commercial Southern Pea Production (C 485) This horticulture publication is about the commercial production of southern peas.
  • Commercial Squash Production (C 527) Squash (Cucurbita spp.) is a member of the cucurbit family, which consists of a number of warm-season vegetables. Another broad group of squash called winter squash. Each group is classified into several types based on fruit shape and color. Warm-season squash are harvested while immature while winter squash are harvested at maturity.
  • Commercial Tomato Production Handbook (B 1312) This publication is a joint effort of the seven disciplines that comprise the Georgia Vegetable Team. It is comprised of 14 topics on tomato, including history of tomato production, cultural practices, pest management, harvesting, handling and marketing. This publication provides information that will assist producers in improving the profitability of tomato production, whether they are new or exp…
  • Commercial Watermelon Production (B 996) Watermelon is a warm-season crop related to cantaloupe, squash, cucumber and pumpkin. Watermelons can be grown on any well-drained soil throughout Georgia but are particularly well adapted to the Coastal Plain soils of South Georgia. Watermelons will continue to be an important part of vegetable production in the state. Increases in average yield per acre will continue as more growers adopt plasti…
  • Commodity Options as Price Insurance for Cattlemen (B 1405) One of the greatest risks cattle producers face is price risk. Price changes can come in the form of declining cattle prices for sellers, increasing cattle prices for buyers or increasing feed prices for feed users. Because of this risk, producers might want to “insure” feeder cattle, fed cattle or feed against unfavorable price movements, while still being able to take advantage of favorable pric…
  • Common Labels and Certifications Used to Market Sustainable Agriculture Products (C 1129) Label terms and certifications can be divided into those that are regulated and those that are unregulated. Regulated label terms and certifications are usually defined by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) or the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Within the USDA, the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is the agency responsible for the truthful labeling of meat and poultry…
  • Common Landscape Diseases in Georgia (B 1238) This publication describes some of the most troublesome diseases of Georgia's landscape plants. The following material will help you identify these diseases and offers recommendations for treatment. Knowledge about the common diseases of Georgia landscape plants will allow professional and amateur growers alike to better fight plant diseases and produce healthy plants.
  • Common Terms Used in Animal Feeding and Nutrition (B 1367) The purpose of this publication is to serve as an educational reference and resource to those who are interested in animal feeding and nutrition. Our primary objective is to list the common terms used when discussing animal feeding. This listing will also be helpful when reading articles on animal feeding and nutrition, feed analysis reports or tags associated with feeds sold in the market.
  • Common Tomato Diseases in Georgia (B 1285) This publication contains information about common tomato diseases in Georgia. It includes photographs and descriptions of diseases such as buckeye rot and fusarium wilt.
  • Community and School Gardens Series: Extending the Crop Season: Unheated Spaces (C 1027-14) This publication describes common myths about cold protection and provides options for protecting plants from the cold in community and school gardens, including cold frames, row covers and hoop houses.
  • Community and School Gardens Series: Garden Fencing (C 1027-9) This publication describes options for fencing a community or school garden, including fence types and materials.
  • Community and School Gardens Series: Garden Sheds (C 1027-7) This publication provides information about storage sheds for community and school gardens, including local building codes, siting a shed, and alternatives to traditional sheds.
  • Community and School Gardens Series: Growing Fruits (C 1027-10) Community gardens designed to provide locally grown food for families can be used to grow fruits in addition to the more commonly grown vegetables. There are many common and lesser-known fruits that are suited for planting in community garden situations.
  • Community and School Gardens Series: Irrigation (C 1027-12) This publication describes irrigation methods suitable for community or school gardens, including overhead sprinklers, hand watering and drip irrigation.
  • Community and School Gardens Series: Less Expensive Sources of Plant Material, Amendments and Tools (C 1027-6) This publication offers advice on finding less expensive sources of plant material, amendments and tools for community and school gardens.
  • Community and School Gardens Series: Planning an Edible Garden (C 1027-1) This publication describes three steps for planning a school garden: garden location, soil and terrain, and choosing crops.
  • Community and School Gardens Series: Raised Bed Materials (C 1027-5) This publication describes the advantages and disadvantages of various materials used for building raised beds, including types of wood, composite materials, recycled materials, and kits.
  • Community and School Gardens Series: Raised Beds vs. In-Ground Gardens (C 1027-3) This publication describes the advantages and disadvantages of raised bed and in-ground gardens and may be used as a guide when planning a community or school garden project.
  • Community and School Gardens Series: Raised Garden Bed Dimensions (C 1027-4) This publication helps determine the ideal dimensions of raised beds for community and school gardens by focusing on three things: materials, slope and accessibility.
  • Community and School Gardens Series: Siting a Garden (C 1027-2) This publication provides recommendations for properly siting a school or community garden, taking into account sunlight exposure, water availability, slope, garden access, tool storage, compost bins and other amenities.
  • Community and School Gardens Series: Sources of Water for the Garden (C 1027-11) This publication discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various sources of water for a community or school garden, including municipal water, rivers or creeks, ponds, wells and rainwater.
  • Community and School Gardens Series: Stocking the Toolshed: Hand Tools (C 1027-8) This publication describes the types and quantities of hand tools that work best for community and school gardens, including shovels, rakes, trowels, hand pruners, gloves, children's tools, and carts and wheelbarrows.
  • Community and School Gardens Series: Weed Control (C 1027-13) This publication describes weed control methods that are appropriate for community and school gardens.
  • Composting 101: How to Effectively Operate a Poultry Mortality Compost Bin (EB 103) Bin composting daily mortality can be a useful, cost-effective management tool when practiced correctly. However, it can be environmentally harmful if it is not managed and monitored properly. This publication shows the necessary steps to obtain a compost product from daily poultry mortality using a bin composting method.
  • Composting and Mulching (C 816) This publication explains how to build, maintain a compost pile as well as how to use compost and mulch in the yard and garden.
  • Composting Mass Poultry Mortalities (B 1282) Composting is a natural process where beneficial microorganisms decompose and transform organic materials into a useful and biologically stable end-product that is safe for the environment. This process has worked well for many poultry producers nationwide as a means of processing their daily poultry mortality.
  • Composting: Recycling Landscape Trimmings (C 981) Citizens throughout Georgia are recycling newspaper, cans, glass and plastic in an effort to divert these materials from the waste stream. Another important part of waste reduction involves recycling leaves, lawn clippings, and tree and shrub trimmings instead of placing them curbside for the county or municipality to pick up. These landscape riches from Mother Nature can be easily recycled and tu…
  • Conservation and Best Management Practices in Georgia: Implementing, Funding and Assistance (B 1335) Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be described as management and/or structural practices that are designed to reduce pollutants and erosion while increasing the quality of all life. The BMP concept deals specifically with nonpoint source pollution, such as runoff from agricultural fields, forest areas or urban areas. Best management practices are also voluntary in nature. Individual practices a…
  • Conserving Water in the Vegetable Garden (C 964) All vegetables, especially tomatoes, like an even supply of water throughout the growing season, and will often develop problems if their water supply fluctuates. If watering restrictions or bans are imposed, water conservation becomes a critical issue.
  • Considerations for County Planners: Components of Zoning Ordinances Relative to Poultry (C 1071) Poultry farming is the number one agricultural enterprise in Georgia. It is important to protect this vital industry by developing prudently-devised and factually-based zoning ordinances. This publication discusses components and terminology when drafting ordinances related to poultry production.
  • Considerations for the Small Market Vegetable Producer (C 1090) Growing vegetables as either a part-time or full-time enterprise can be an enjoyable and rewarding experience. Not only can you produce fresh food for your own table, you can provide supplemental income to your family’s budget. While that may sound great, there are several considerations to bear in mind before you jump into this endeavor. Items to consider before becoming a small market grower inc…
  • Considerations for Using By-Product Feeds (B 862) By-product feeds come from a variety of sources, including grain processing, production of human foods and beverages, and manufacturing of fiber products. Although many of these feeds have been used for years, others are relatively new. Research has been conducted on most by-product feeds and the guidelines for their use are well documented; however, limited information is available on the feeding…
  • Consumer Demand for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in the U.S. (1960-1993) (RB 431) Price and expenditure elasticities at the retail level between 1960 and 1993 were estimated for 11 fresh fruits and 10 fresh vegetables by employing a composite demand system approach and using annual data. Most fresh fruits and vegetables were found to respond significantly to changes in their own prices but insignificantly to changes in expenditures. The study partially incorporated the interdep…
  • Consumer Horticulture Series: Connecting People and Plants (C 1202) Consumer horticulture touches all our lives, whether in a bustling downtown area, the open countryside, or anywhere in between. Consumer horticulture supports human health, community beautification, environmental stewardship, local food, and more. Consumer horticulture benefits us when we tend a container garden, visit and play in a park or public garden, and grow plants indoors or outdoors.
  • Consumer Horticulture Series: Consumer Horticulture Benefits for Individuals and Families (C 1203) The plants and gardens that we tend matter for our personal health. They can enhance our homes, making them a haven for rest and well-being. They provide much-needed exercise, nutrition, and diversion while also providing the space to make important community connections.
  • Consumer Horticulture Series: Consumer Horticulture Benefits our Environment (C 1215) Consumer horticulture is the cultivation, use, and enjoyment of plants, gardens, landscapes, and related horticultural items to the benefit of individuals, communities, and the environment. These activities rely on the understanding and application of the art and science of horticulture. This publication focuses on what consumer horticulture provides for the environment.
  • Control of Common Pests of Landscape Plants (B 1074) Many species of insects or mites attack Georgia landscape plants. Homeowners have difficulty controlling these pests because they often are not aware of the problem until both the infestation and the damage are extensive, or they may apply insecticides improperly or at the wrong time. Brief descriptions of major groups of pests (or the damage they cause) found on Georgia landscape plants are provi…
  • Control of Lace Bugs on Ornamental Plants (B 1102) Lace bug damage to the foliage of trees and shrubs detracts greatly from the plants' beauty, reduces the plants' ability to produce food, reduces the plants' vigor ad causes the plant to be more susceptible to damage by other insects, diseases or unfavorable weather conditions. Repeated, heavy infestations of lace bugs may be the primary cause of plant death.
  • Control of Mastitis and Milk Quality in Dairy Goats through Immunization (B 1446) Prevalence of mastitis in dairy goats ranges between 5% and 30%, with Staphylococcus spp., otherwise known as the coagulase-negative staphylococci, identified as the most frequent cause of infection. These staphylococci produce persistent subclinical mastitis with markedly elevated somatic cell counts (SCC), which may lead to clinical symptoms. Prevention is the key to controlling staphylococcal …
  • Controlling Crabgrass and Goosegrass with Resistance to Sethoxydim and other ACCase-Inhibitors in Georgia Turf (B 1462) Sethoxydim has been widely used for grassy weed control in centipedegrass lawns, roadsides, and sod farms. Decades of exclusive sethoxydim use in Georgia have led to the emergence of ACCase-resistant goosegrass and southern crabgrass in turf. This publication covers the development, detection, and control of ACCase-resistance crabgrass and goosegrass for professional turfgrass managers.
  • Controlling Insects on Summer Squash in the Home Garden (C 1177) Summer squash is one of the most popular warm season vegetables grown in home gardens. Unfortunately, the levels of insect attacks on summer squash have risen dramatically over the last 10 years. Safe and effective controls are needed to help produce this important crop with all of the pressures of insect pests. This publication will discuss both organic and non-organic solutions for homeowners to…
  • Controlling Lace Bugs on Ornamental Grasses (C 1143) The grass lace bug, Leptodictya plana Heidemann (Hemiptera: Tingidae), has been recently reported as a pest of ornamental grasses in Georgia. It is closely related to, and resembles, the sugarcane lace bug, L. tabida (Herrich-Schaeffer). The lace bug thrives in warm, dry conditions, and the recent drought in the Southeastern U.S. may have contributed to the grass lace bug’s recent emergence as a s…
  • Controlling Moss and Algae in Turf (C 823) Occasionally, turfgrass areas begin to thin out and moss and algae start to form. These primitive plants develop because conditions for growing dense, healthy turf have declined. This publication gives you preventive practices and chemical suppression tips for controlling moss and algae in turf.
  • Conversion Tables, Formulas and Suggested Guidelines for Horticultural Use (B 931) Pesticide and fertilizer recommendations are often made on a pounds per acre and tons per acre basis. While these may be applicable to field production of many crops, orchardists, nurserymen and greenhouse operators often must convert these recommendations to smaller areas, such as row feet, square feet, or even per tree or per pot. Thus pints, cups, ounces, tablespoons and teaspoons are the commo…
  • Corn Production Safety and Health for Farmers (B 1333) This publication addresses safety issues inherent to corn production before and during a corn production season. We have divided safety issues into General Health and Safety, Corn Harvest, Corn Grain Bin, and Augers. Safety tips are presented that should be reviewed by anyone involved with corn production on the farm.
  • Cost of Irrigation Ownership and Operating Costs through Irrigation Budgets for South Georgia (C 1235) These irrigation budgets, developed by University of Georgia Cooperative Extension, are estimates of the irrigation costs of a center pivot irrigation system located in southeast Georgia. Our intention is to provide flexible, user-friendly irrigation budgets with default values. That being said, the variation among different farm conditions can impact investment costs and annual costs associated w…
  • Cotton Growth Monitoring and PGR Management (C 1244) Cotton growth monitoring is vital to producing a healthy crop, making sure that the crop is growing on track, and that there are minimal stresses on the crop. Growth monitoring also can assist in making plant growth regulator (PGR) applications. PGR applications are complex, and many factors play into the decision of when to use them and at what rates. The goal of this publication is to discuss th…
  • Cotton Production and the Boll Weevil in Georgia: History, Cost of Control, and Benefits of Eradication (RB 428) The success of the Southeast Boll Weevil Eradication Program has played a major role in the recent revival of Georgia’s cotton industry. Along with these economic benefits, the remarkable success of the eradication program has led to a significant decrease in insecticide use in Georgia cotton, and to substantial environmental benefits to growers and residents of the state.
  • Country Cured Ham (B 1526) Country cured hams are considered a delicacy and are widely accepted by Georgians. Our forefathers cured country hams during the winter months in order to have a summer supply of meat. Country hams, properly cured, develop a distinct flavor during aging. Modern methods of curing and aging country hams are somewhat different from the methods used 50 to 100 years ago. The loss of meat due to spoilag…
  • Cover Crop Biomass Sampling (C 1077) Cover crops are one of the most important practices that farmers can use to improve their soils and the sustainability of their production system. Knowing how much biomass there is in a field is a critical piece of information for cover crop management. Part 1 of this circular provides a step-by-step guide to taking a sample that will be representative of your field. Part 2 provides additional ste…
  • Cow Behavior: A Critical Factor to Consider Under Heat Stress (B 1442) Cow behavior is critical for animal well-being and performance and influenced by many factors, such as heat stress. Under thermo-neutral conditions, cows spend half a day lying down and the rest of the time is distributed into standing, feeding and milking. However, when cows are exposed to heat stress, they spend less time lying down but more time standing up. The altered cattle behavior by heat …
  • Cowpea Curculio in Southern Pea (C 1038) This publication describes ways to identify and manage cowpea curculio damage in Southern pea.
  • Crape Myrtle Bark Scale: An Emerging Invasive Pest in the Nursery and Landscape (C 1234) The crape myrtle bark scale (CMBS) is an emerging threat to crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia spp.) in Georgia. As the name indicates, this scale pest attacks the bark of crape myrtle, the only known scale insect that infests crape myrtle bark. A native of Asia, CMBS was first confirmed in Dallas, Texas, in 2004. Since then, the pest has gradually expanded its range to the southeastern states. In Georgi…
  • Crape Myrtle Culture (C 944) Crape myrtle is one of the most useful flowering shrubs/trees grown in Georgia. It provides abundant summer color with a minimum of maintenance.
  • Creating Pollinator Nesting Boxes to Help Native Bees (C 1125) Planting pollinator-friendly flowers in your yard is a great first step for improving the quality of pollinator habitats. Adding nesting sites and nesting materials is another important measure in creating sustainable habitats, especially for native bees. When bees have access to a diversity of nesting materials, their numbers are positively affected, so providing nesting resources in your landsca…
  • Creep Feeding Beef Calves (B 1315) Creep feeding is the practice of providing supplemental feed (grain or forage) to nursing calves. This is usually done with the use of a creep gate, which is large enough for calves to enter the feeding area but too small to allow cows to pass. Creep feeding systems vary from grain-based energy supplements to limit-fed protein supplements to creep grazing. Each system generally produces increased …
  • Crop Profile for Cowpeas in Georgia (B 1480) Georgia ranks in the nation's top 10 in cowpea (southern pea, Vigna unguiculata) production, with estimates of more than 4,900 acres grown in approximately 49 of 159 counties in the state in the 2014 production season. Colquitt County, located in southwest Georgia, leads the state in production with 1,900 acres. This cowpea crop profile is the first in the Southeast United States and will support …
  • Cross-Commodity Management of Silverleaf Whitefly in Georgia (C 1141) Silverleaf whitefly (SLWF) is a major pest of agriculture in Georgia requiring management in vegetable and agronomic cropping systems to preserve yield and quality. Our greatest opportunity for impacting the severity of SLWF infestations is to minimize overall SLWF populations moving from one cropping system to the next. This can be accomplished with effective in crop management and timely termina…
  • Cultural Management of Commercial Pecan Orchards (B 1304) In order for a commercial pecan operation to be consistently successful, the goal of the operation should be annual production of a moderate crop of high quality nuts, rather than the production of a high yield in a single given year. Culturally, there are several basic factors that will help to promote optimum profitability with a commercial pecan orchard.
  • Cultural Management of the Bearing Peach Orchard (C 879) When the peach tree moves into its bearing years a shift in emphasis from exclusive attention to vegetative development for building a tree structure to maintaining a balance enough vegetative growth to promote adequate fruiting wood and return bloom for the following season’s fruit crop and managing the current season’s fruit crop.
  • Cutting Costs, Not Corners: Managing Cattle in Tough Times (B 1373) Cutting costs allows producers to survive during trying times and also teaches valuable lessons that may actually increase profits in future years. Cutting corners, on the other hand, may save some money in the short-run but ultimately will have very detrimental effects.
  • Dahlias (C 576) Dahlias are among the most spectacular flowers you can grow in your garden. Hundreds of varieties are available, with flower sizes ranging from 1 to 14 inches in diameter. Almost any color except true blue can be produced in Georgia. In exchange for their beauty, dahlias require dedicated care. Most of them need special soil preparation, staking, watering during dry periods, disbudding and a stric…
  • Dairy Business Analysis Project: 1999 Summary for Florida and Georgia Dairies (B 1205-1) The Dairy Business Analysis Project was initiated in 1996 to measure and document the financial performance of Florida dairy businesses using standardized accounting measures, so uniform comparisons could be made among participants. Formal collaboration between the Universities of Florida and Georgia began in 1998. This publication presents the results from fiscal year 1999 information.
  • Dairy Business Analysis Project: 2005 Summary for Florida and Georgia Dairies (B 1205-2) Financial data for the year 2005 were collected from participating dairy farms and screened for completeness and validity. Each dairy farm then received a benchmark report detailing its financial results compared to the average results for the other participants and the six dairy farms with the highest net farm income per cwt. This benchmark report is discussed with the dairy farms to identify cha…
  • Dairy Genetic Benchmarks (B 1203) This publication provides genetic benchmarks for Holstein herds processed by Dairy Records Management Systems. Examples for using and applying benchmark values are provided; however, this publication should be viewed primarily as a comprehensive resource of genetic benchmark values. These values will be useful to dairy producers, dairy managers, consultants, veterinarians and agribusiness represen…
  • Dairy Herd Synchronization Programs (B 1227) This publication describes dairy herd synchronization programs will help improve your reproductive management efficiency. Try the one that fits your management system the best. Both estrus and ovulation synchronization programs will help get more animals bred more efficiently. Feeding open animals extra days can be costly to producers. Identify open animals and pick the best breeding alternative f…
  • Dairy Judging Terminology: A Guide to Saying What She is and Not What She Isn't (B 1234) This guide is designed to help you improve your reasons for your placings in dairy cattle evaluations. Slowly incorporate new terms into your oral reasons and your ability to describe what you see will continue to improve. Concentrate on what you see instead of what you don't see. You only have 2 ½ minutes to justify your placings. Use I.D. points, and Practice! Practice! Practice!
  • Dairy Production and Management Benchmarks (B 1193) This publication provides production and management benchmarks for Holstein herds processed by Dairy Records Management Systems. Some examples of using and applying benchmark values are provided. However, this publication should be viewed primarily as a comprehensive resource of production and management benchmark values. These benchmarks will be useful to dairy producers, dairy managers, consulta…
  • Dairy Reproduction Benchmarks (B 1210) This publication provides reproduction benchmarks for Holstein herds processed by Dairy Records Management Systems. Some examples of using and applying benchmark values are provided; however, this publication should be viewed primarily as a comprehensive resource for reproduction benchmark values. These benchmarks will be useful to dairy producers, dairy managers, consultants, veterinarians and ag…
  • Dealing with Pasture, Hay, Feed, and Livestock Losses After Significant Weather Events (C 1165) As a result of significant weather events, many producers in Georgia may experience losses of pasture growth, hay stocks, feed supplies, and livestock. After such events occur, farmers will be assessing damage to fields, stock, and property for many days, weeks, months. This publication is intended to provide recommendations to farmers that have experienced adverse affects due to significant weath…
  • Deer-Tolerant Ornamental Plants (C 985) If deer are overabundant in your neighborhood, and deer herd reduction or management is not feasible, a good way to prevent deer browsing in landscapes is to plant ornamental plants that deer do not like to eat.
  • Designing Research and Demonstration Tests for Farmers' Fields (B 1177) As farmers and farm advisers, you make many management choices during a growing season. For example, you may have to decide which cultivar to plant, which herbicide to use, how frequently to apply a fungicide, and what rate of nematicide to use. Often the information needed to make the best decision is available to you, but when it is not available you can frequently compare the options by conduct…
  • Designing, Constructing and Maintaining Bermudagrass Sports Fields (B 1292) This for-sale publication describes everything you need to know about designing, constructing and maintaining bermudagrass sports fields. It is available for purchase here: http://www.caes.uga.edu/publications/for_sale.cfm
  • Determining Lime Requirement Using the Equilibrium Lime Buffer Capacity (C 874) Soil pH is an important chemical property because it influences the availability of soil nutrients for plant uptake, and it affects a crop's root system development. Soil pH also indicates whether lime is needed to correct toxicities caused by aluminum and manganese, or to increase calcium levels in the soil. A new method measures the buffering capacity directly.
  • Developing a Food Safety Plan for Acid / Acidified Foods (B 1541) This bulletin provides the scientific basis and food-safety framework for developing a food safety plan for acid/acidified foods. This includes practical food-safety examples for the acidified foods, including foundational support of a recordkeeping system and forms. Learning how to develop a process-flow diagram, developing recordkeeping forms, and applying food-safety principles during acid/acid…
  • Developing a Recall Plan: A Guide for Small Food Processing Facilities (B 1509) The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines a recall as actions taken by a firm to remove a product from the market. A well-designed recall plan will help to effectively locate the recalled product, remove it from the market, and locate the source of error in the product. It serves a guide for the company to follow if a situation requiring a recall presents itself. Recalls can be conducted on a…
  • Developing a Storm Preparedness and Response Plan for Dairies (B 1525) The Southeast U.S. is susceptible to hurricanes and tropical storms every year. Hurricane season occurs from June 1 through November 30, and these storms are normally forecast several days in advance. Tornadoes, ice storms, thunderstorms, or straight-line winds—potentially damaging winds produced by thunderstorms—are rarely forecast with enough notice to prepare other than to hopefully warn employ…
  • Development and Control of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes in Carrots (B 1545) Carrots suffer significant yield losses from nematode pests because the harvested edible product (taproot) is directly affected by nematode infection, resulting in reduced marketable yield and quality. Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are widespread in several counties in South Georgia and cause serious damage to carrots. Stubby-root (Paratrichodorus or Nanidorus spp.) and root-lesion (Praty…
  • Diagnostic Guide to Common Home Orchard Diseases (B 1336) This publication is intended to be used as a pictorial diagnostic guide to identify the most common diseases seen on fruits grown in home landscapes, gardens, and/or orchards in Georgia. Use this guide as a supplemental resource and/or reference to the Homeowner Edition of the Georgia Pest Management Handbook.
  • Diagnostics System for Crop History and Disorders in Greenhouses and Nurseries (B 1273) This diagnostic system is designed as a tool to assist growers, Extension specialists and county agents to diagnose problems with ornamental crops. The document consists of six major sections and five appendices. Each section is designed to supply information on various important aspects of the crop under scrutiny.
  • Diseases of Leyland Cypress in the Landscape (B 1229) Leyland cypress has become one of the most widely used plants in commercial and residential landscapes across Georgia as a formal hedge, screen, buffer strip or wind barrier. Leyland cypress (x Cupressocyparis leylandii) is a graceful, rapidly growing evergreen tree that is adapted for growth within the 6-10a USDA hardiness zones. Leyland cypress is considered relatively pest-free; however, becaus…
  • Diseases of Sorghum in Georgia: Identification and Control (C 1271) This publication contains information on the most important and common diseases of sorghum, the biology of the causal agents, as well as a detailed description of the disease symptoms (aided by high-quality detailed pictures), relevant up-to-date information on conditions favoring the diseases, as well as cultural, genetic and chemical methods of control. The publication is aimed for producers, cr…
  • Do You Plan to Retire? Series: Ways to Save for Retirement (C 1112-2) Retirement is just around the corner, and it is important to begin planning and saving for retirement as soon as possible. In order to maximize your savings, it is important to understand the various types of tax-advantaged retirement plans available individually and offered by employers.
  • Dollar Spot of Turfgrasses in Georgia: Identification and Control (C 1091) Dollar spot is an ever-present turfgrass disease that affects all warm and cool season grasses in the state of Georgia. The publication contains important information on the biology of the causal agent, detail description of the disease symptoms (aided by high quality-detailed pictures), relevant up-to-date information on conditions favoring the disease, as well as cultural, genetic and chemical m…
  • Dormant Spur and Cane Pruning Bunch Grapevines (B 1505) This bulletin is intended to provide to provide both veteran and new growers an overview of commercially popular pruning strategies and a greater depth of understanding of the theory behind pruning method practice. Dormant pruning is an important vineyard management decision as it sets the crop level and canopy density before green tissues are present. Growers must take several considerations into…
  • Drinking Water: Interpretation and Recommendations (B 1441) An estimated 1.7 million people in Georgia rely on 640,000 private wells for their drinking water supply. The Georgia Environmental Protection Division enforces EPA's drinking water quality standards for human consumption in public water supplies according to the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act. However, private wells are not regulated. Consequently, private well water users are responsible for en…
  • Drip Chemigation: Injecting Fertilizer, Acid and Chlorine (B 1130) Drip irrigation is an important component of vegetable production systems in Georgia. Drip irrigation is more desirable than other irrigation methods for several reasons. Two important advantages are (1) water conservation and (2) potentially significantly improving fertilizer management. Fertigation is the timely application of small amounts of fertilizer through drip tubes directly to the root z…
  • Drip Irrigation Checklist: Start-Up (C 1093) This publication reviews the critical items to address when starting a drip irrigation system that has been idle. This is important information for specialty crop producers and homeowners that have drip irrigation systems servicing fruit, nut, and vegetable crops.
  • Drip Irrigation Checklist: Winterization (C 1094) This publication addresses winterization of a drip irrigation system. The circular includes information about winterization timing, components of a drip system, precautions to take when servicing a drip system, and a quick reference run-down to the winterization process.
  • Drip Irrigation in Pecans (B 936) Research conducted on drip-irrigated pecans in Georgia over the past several years has shown that drip irrigation is highly beneficial even in wet years. The objective of drip irrigation is to supply each plant with sufficient soil moisture to meet transpiration demands. Drip irrigation offers unique agronomic, agrotechnical and economic advantages for the efficient use of water.
  • Drip Irrigation in the Home Vegetable Garden (C 1095) This publication is designed to give small market growers, homeowners, and Master Gardener audiences a quick guide to selecting and installing drip irrigation in the vegetable garden.
  • Drought Management Strategies for Beef Cattle (B 1323) Drought conditions are a yearly occurrence in Georgia and have been prolonged in several areas over the past several years. These conditions can have severe impacts on cattle, and every cattleman should have a plan in place to minimize the effects of drought on the farm's finances. This publication describes several management strategies for producers to consider during drought conditions.
  • Drought-Related Cattle Feeding Problems (SB 51) Drought does not develop overnight but progressively over time. Proper management during a drought period can make or break a producer's ability to stay in the cattle business. One main concern during a drought period is feeding and nutrition of the cow herd. Several problems could arise due to drought conditions. A good producer should stay alert for warning signs and avoid potentially damaging s…
  • Dust Control with Engineering Systems in Poultry Houses (C 1214) High levels of dust in cage-free poultry house air can carry airborne microorganisms and endotoxins that, once inhaled, may trigger respiratory diseases in animals and/or their caretakers. Mitigating dust levels is imperative to protecting the health and well-being of the animals and their caretakers and improving the environmental stewardship of cage-free layer farms. Studies have concluded that …
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: A Healthy Breakfast Feeds the Brain (C 1037-07) Read about the connection between a healthy breakfast and children's learning, and work with your child to make a fruit smoothie for breakfast.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: A Variety of Foods for Picky Eaters (C 1037-16) Read tips for helping picky eaters try new foods, and play a food finder game with your child on your next grocery shopping trip.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Appropriate Portion Sizes (C 1037-13) Learn quick ways to estimate appropriate portion sizes for common foods, and help your child practice measuring and comparing portions of cereal.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Benefits of Staying Physically Active (C 1037-19) Read about the benefits of being physically active for adults and children, and play walking games with your child.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Breakfast Fuels Your Day (C 1037-06) Learn why breakfast is essential to good health, and encourage your children to make breakfast more interesting with healthy toppings for their hot or cold cereal.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Current Physical Activity Trends (C 1037-24) Read about current trends in physical activity, and help your child be active by finding creative ways to move while drawing with sidewalk chalk.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Drinking Water is Important (C 1037-01) Learn why drinking water is an important part of keeping yourself and your family healthy, and help children learn about hydration by exploring wet and dry sponges.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Eat Breakfast Together (C 1037-09) Read tips for creating a quick breakfast your family can eat on the go, and make breakfast fun by inviting your family on a breakfast picnic.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Eating a Variety of Foods can be Fun! (C 1037-05) Find out how to make eating foods from all of the food groups more fun, and encourage your child to eat fruit by making silly fruit faces on a plate.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Eating a Variety of Foods is Healthy! (C 1037-04) Learn about the five food groups that make up MyPlate, and help your child learn the groups by coloring in sections of a paper plate.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Healthy Eating on a Budget (C 1037-17) Learn how to help your family eat healthy on a budget, and help your child keep track of what he/she eats in each food group using a simple chart.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: How Much Physical Activity? (C 1037-22) Find out how much physical activity young children need, and encourage your child to be active by playing a freeze dance game with music.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: How Much Water Should You Drink? (C 1037-02) Find out how much water you should drink to stay hydrated, and help children make drinking water more fun by making colored fruit ice cubes.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: It's Important to Stop When You're Full (C 1037-11) Learn why it’s important to stop eating when you are full, and teach your child about “full” and “empty” using bowls of water.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Making Breakfast can be Fun (C 1037-10) Check out breakfast foods that your child can help make, and work together with your child to build a fruit and yogurt parfait.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Modeling Healthy Eating Behaviors (C 1037-18) Find out how to model healthy eating for your child, and work with your child to create a healthy trail mix for a snack.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Motivating Your Child to be Active (C 1037-23) Learn how to motivate your child to be more active, and encourage your child’s physical activity by setting up a treasure hunt.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Physical Activity Teaches New Skills (C 1037-20) Learn about the skills children learn through physical activity, and be active as a family by playing a giant board game with your child.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Safety and Physical Activity (C 1037-21) Read safety tips for your active child, and encourage your child to be active by creating and moving through an obstacle course together.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Tips for Serving Smaller Portions (C 1037-14) Read tips for serving your family smaller food portions, and help your child practice healthy eating by self-serving food at the next meal.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Water Helps Children Succeed (C 1037-03) Read tips to help your child drink enough water every day, and help your child keep track of water drinking with a simple chart.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: What Does Full Feel Like? (C 1037-12) Find out how to help your child recognize what feeling full is like, and encourage your child to practice “full” by filling a plastic bag with flour or cornstarch.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: What to Eat for Breakfast? (C 1037-08) Check out breakfast ideas that include foods from several food groups, and encourage your child to draw a favorite breakfast food.
  • Eat Healthy, Be Active Series: Why It's Important to Stop When Full (C 1037-15) Learn why it is important not to force children to clean their plates, and read a story with your child about why stopping eating when full is important.
  • Eclipta Identification and Control in Peanut (C 869) Eclipta is considered to be one of the world's worst weeds. This publication discusses the identification and control of eclipta in peanut.
  • Eco-Friendly Garden: Attracting Pollinators, Beneficial Insects, and Other Natural Predators (B 1456) A pollinator-friendly and ecologically sustainable garden is both beautiful and able to attract and sustain beneficial insects, reducing the need for pesticides. This publication is based on new research in habitat management for purposes of planting insect-attracting plant species in order to intentionally draw insects to garden areas and urban landscapes. This is done by providing a refuge for t…
  • Economic Impact of the Georgia Green Industry, 2013 (C 1138) The state of Georgia ranked ninth out of all states in 2013 for green industry (not including sod production, as this was not included in the analysis) economic contributions (including multiplier effects) to employment (64,066 jobs) and GDP ($3.79 billion) and tenth in total industry output ($6.72 billion). The largest individual sector in regard to output and employment both directly and indirec…
  • Economics of Farm Storage Buildings (B 1173) It is widely accepted that storing farm equipment under a shelter is better than storing it outside and that hay stored in a barn is better than hay stored in the field. But how can we determine just how much a farm storage building is worth? The answer is different for every individual operation, but there are some guidelines that will help you make an intelligent decision about whether or not yo…
  • Effects of Low Temperature on Plants (B 1467) Temperatures affects plant growth and distribution. This publication explains how low temperatures (chilling and freezing) affect plant growth in production greenhouses, nurseries, and landscapes. These three environments have different causes and effects, each requiring unique responses to avoid injury. This publication outlines different techniques that can be used to avoid cold injury to plants…
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Are We Compatible? (C 1052-09) While contemplating if a dating partner might turn into a marriage partner, deciding how compatible you are as a couple is an important factor. In this publication, we describe why compatibility is important and how you can decide how compatible you and your partner actually are based on five areas of importance.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Before You Say “I Do” (C 1052-10) Taking the time to think about the marriage can be difficult while planning a wedding, but taking the time to think about the decision to marry can help you avoid future problems. In this publication, we offer questions you should ask yourself and describe with your partner before you say "I do."
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Before You Say “I Do” Again (C 1052-30) Remarried couples are different from first-marriage couples in that they bring different experiences to the marriage. These experiences can lead to unique difficulties. In this publication, we describe the characteristics of a successful remarriage and encourage communication and commitment.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Bids for Connection: Creating Positive Interactions in Your Marriage (C 1052-26) Positive interactions are important to building a strong marriage. When one partner attempts to make a positive connection, how the other partner responds impacts whether the connection is positive or negative. In this publication, we describe what it means to "bid for connection" and what each partner can do to create more positive connections.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Caregiving Spouses (C 1052-36) As couples reach the later years of marriage, one partner may become ill and the other take on the caregiver role. In this publication, we describe ways for the caregiver to support their partner's self-esteem and describe options of support for the caregiving partner.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Commitment to Look for the Positive (C 1052-15) Committing to look for the positive in the relationship can have a strong impact on the strength of a couple's marriage and their levels of satisfaction. In this publication, we encourage couples to commit to having a positive point of view, to look for and built upon the positive things in their lives, share in and talk about positive events, and to be positive and encouraging toward their partne…
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Dealing Positively with Your Former Spouse (C 1052-31) After divorce, many parents have difficulty establishing the type of relationship they will have in order to co-parent their child or children. In this publication, we describe the different types of co-parent relationships that can be established and offer suggestions on how to interact with a former spouse to maintain a relationship beneficial to raising a healthy child.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Dealing with Anger (C 1052-16) Anger is an emotion that everyone feels from time to time, but mismanaging this emotion can lead to hurt and difficulty in the marriage. In this publication, we describe some ways that anger is not handled well, and how to better manage and express anger so that the problem can be resolved without damage to the marriage.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Empty Nest, Now What? (C 1052-02) When the last child leaves home, many couples experience difficulties to this new life adjustment. In this publication, we offer suggestions on how to identify and describe these problems as a couple and move into the "second half" of marriage.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Enhancing Midlife Marriage (C 1052-37) While, at times, marital satisfaction might decrease during the middle years, there are also many benefits to this stage of marriage. In this publication, we describe the highs and the lows of the middle years and what couples can do to increase satisfaction during this stage.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Getting to ‘Really’ Know You (C 1052-11) Dating is an important time of learning about yourself and your partner, but during the beginning stages of a dating relationship, each partner tends to put their best foot forward, which may lead to disappointment later in the relationship. In this publication, we describe the beginning stages of a dating relationship, and the steps new dating couples can take to avoid future disappointment.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Goal Setting in Marriage (C 1052-17) Setting goals in a marriage can lead to expectations being met for both partners and for more marital satisfaction. In this publication, we describe the importance of setting goals and give some suggestions on how to set, evaluate, and reach them.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Great Expectations: What Do You Want for Your Marriage? (C 1052-27) Each person brings certain expectations to a relationship from previous experiences and exposures. In this publication, we describe expectations in the marriage and how opening describing these expectations can lead to better marital satisfaction.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Honey, Do You Want Lilies or Daisies? Discussing End-of-life with Your Partner (C 1052-38) Describing end of life decisions can be uncomfortable and upsetting, but is an important topic to consider. In this publication, we describe ways for a partner to bring up end of life decisions in conversation and offer guidelines for talking about and making these decisions.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: How Attached is Your Relationship? (C 1052-12) Positive attachment is an important part of building a healthy marriage. When knowledge, trust, reliance, commitment, and sex are at balanced levels, strong, lasting attachment can help build stronger marriages. In this publication, we describe the five areas of attachment and offer suggestions on how to evaluate and improve attachment levels in these categories.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Instant Family and Love? (C 1052-32) Many couples in a stepmarriage bring certain expectations to the new marriage that might be unrealistic, not only for the marriage itself, but for the whole family. In this publication, we describe what some of those expectations might be and offer tips on how to help the entire new family connect and love each other, which takes commitment and time.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Is Work Starving Your Marriage? (C 1052-35) Due to the increasing demands of the workplace, some couples experience problems due to the interference that work might have with couple or family time. The working spouse may feel the stress of a demanding job while the other spouse may feel that they are not the priority. In this publication, we describe the increasing demands of a job or career and the impact it may have on the relationship, w…
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Knowing Your Partner (C 1052-18) Taking the time to really get to know your partner can help build a strong relational foundation so that when significant life changes occur, the marriage can continue to stay strong. In this publication, we explain the importance of knowing your partner well and steps you can take to get to know each other better.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Let’s Talk S-E-X (C 1052-03) Communicating about the sexual relationship can be very difficult for some couples. In this publication, we describe the importance of communication about sex, how sex is viewed differently, and offer some tips on how to communicate about the sexual relationship.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Listen to Learn (C 1052-19) During partner communication, listening to learn, rather than listening to reject, is an important communication skill. In this publication, we explain the difference between listening to learn and listening to reject and explain how listening to learn can lead to better communication and understanding between partners.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Love for a Lifetime: Acting on Your Love for Your Spouse (C 1052-04) Many married couples say "I love you" to each other, but practicing love is key to a lasting marriage. In this publication, we offer suggestions of how to express love and give ideas of how to put love in to practice on a daily basis.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Making Couple-time a Priority (C 1052-05) Because of their busy lifestyles, many couples find it difficult to make time for just each other. In this publication, we describe the importance of one-on-one time and offer tips on how to make time for one another in a busy daily life.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Managing Conflict, Winning at Love (C 1052-23) Conflict is a natural part of any close relationship, and learning how to handle conflict well can lead to each partner feeling understood and safe to share opinions and feelings, which can lead to an increase in marital satisfaction. In this publication, we describe the importance of conflict resolution skills and offer suggestions on how to communicate so that each partner feels understood and s…
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Marriage, a Promise to Work (C 1052-13) Many people believe that marriage is "happily ever after" and that happiness is the goal. In the publication, we describe the reality of marriage and the commitment involved.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Money Talks (C 1052-20) Since conversations about money are often emotionally charged, these conversations can quickly turn into disagreements. In this publication, we list ways to communicate effectively about money, which may lead to better money management and harmony in the family.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Money: Yours, Mine, and Ours? (C 1052-33) How money is handled in a remarriage is a major decision based on past experience and financial resources available. Many remarried couples use a variation of a "Yours, Mine, and Ours" approach. In this publication, we describe different options for handling money in a remarriage and offer questions to answer on how money will be handled, opening the lines for communication.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Newlywed Bliss Versus the Money Monster (C 1052-28) Money plays a major role in every marriage, and each partner handles money differently, which can lead to emotionally-charged disagreements. In this publication, we describe the impact money decisions can have on a marriage and offer suggestions on how to communicate with your spouse about money.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: One Marriage, Two Religions (C 1052-06) Interfaith couples may experience hurdles when blending religious beliefs and traditions. In this publication, we describe challenges that interfaith couples may face and offer suggestions of how to describe situations couples may face.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Owning the Message (C 1052-22) Making an effort to nourish your marital relationship can greatly strengthen your marriage. When conflicts do arise, using "I" statements can make communication more positive. In this publication, we list ways to nourish the relationship, explain the use of "I" statements, and describe the positive impact compliments can have in improving the marriage.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: P.S., I Love You: Dealing with Time Apart (C 1052-07) When one spouse is away and time is spent apart due to job- or military-related duties, the couple may experience unique hurdles and difficulties. In this publication, we describe difficulties long-distance couples may face and offer important strategies to help the couple and family during the time apart.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Preparing Your Marriage for Retirement (C 1052-39) Retirement is not only a transition period for the individual but also for the marriage. In this publication we describe the impact that retirement might have on the marriage and how to prepare for this major life change within the marriage.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Staying Together After the Loss of a Child (C 1052-08) The loss of a child is an extremely difficult event for anyone to go through and often takes a toll on the marriage. Many couples do, however, maintain a healthy marriage through the difficult loss. In this publication, we describe strategies couples can use to talk about the loss and where to get support during this extremely difficult time.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Stepparenting Begins with Common Ground (C 1052-34) Defining the role as a stepparent can be a very difficult transition, both for the stepparent and the stepchild. In this publication, we offer steps to help make the transition smoother and to help a new stepparent know what to expect in his or her new role.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: Surviving the Holidays (C 1052-21) Expecting a magical or perfect holiday season is something that many individuals practice, possibly leading to stress and disappointment, which can put strain on the marriage. In this publication, we offer suggestions on how to prepare for the holiday season by having open communication with your partner about expectations and realistic plans.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: The Honeymoon is Over, Now What? (C 1052-29) After the "honeymoon phase," many couples find that marriage is not exactly what they envisioned, possibly leaving them less than satisfied with their relationship. In this publication, we describe the normalcy of this feeling, acknowledge that adjustment is necessary and offer strategies for building a strong marriage.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: The New Year, a Good Time for an Intimacy Checkup (C 1052-14) Taking an annual inventory of the emotional, social, sexual, intellectual, recreational, and spiritual intimacy that is in a marriage can reveal what is being done well and what areas might need improvement. In this publication, we explain each area of intimacy in a marriage and how couples can evaluate and improve their intimacy level in these areas.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: What Did You Mean? (C 1052-24) Men and women communicate in different ways, which may lead to a misunderstanding. In this publication, we describe the ways in which men and women generally communicate and offer suggestions on how to communicate so that misunderstanding is minimal.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: What I Said vs. What You Heard (C 1052-25) Many things, such as distractions, emotional states, beliefs and expectations, differences in communication styles, and self-protection can lead to a miscommunication between couples. In this publication, we point out several things that might lead to a miscommunication so that couples can identify them before they become a problem.
  • Elevate Your Relationship Series: When Baby Makes Three: Making Time for Two (C 1052-01) The significant life-changing experience of becoming a first-time parent can be an exciting and stressful time, but can also take a toll on the marriage. In this publication, we describe why becoming parents may be difficult on the marriage and offer suggestions of how to cope with the changes that come along with a family addition.
  • Ensuring Safe Private Well Water for Household Use After a Flood (C 1124) The quality of drinking water from wells may be compromised during a flood. Flooding around the well increases the risk of drinking water becoming contaminated with bacteria or any other contaminants, rendering it unsafe to drink and for washing food items. This publication describes the steps to take when you suspect that your well has been affected by flooding. Steps include well inspection, cal…
  • Environmental Enhancement with Ornamental Plants: Butterfly Gardening (C 975) Butterfly populations can be greatly enhanced by devoting a portion of the landscape to butterfly habitat. In addition to their natural beauty, butterflies serve as valuable plant pollinators.
  • Environmental Factors to Control when Brooding Chicks (B 1287) The main objective in brooding chicks is to efficiently and economically provide a comfortable, healthy environment for growing birds. Temperature, air quality, humidity and light are critical factors to consider. Failure to provide the adequate environment during the brooding period will reduce profitability, resulting in reduced growth and development, poorer feed conversion, and increased disea…
  • Environmentally Friendly Landscape Practices (C 967) With proper planning, planting and maintenance, a healthier landscape can be created with less expense, less work and less damage to the world around us.
  • Equine Parasite Control: Moving Beyond Rotational Deworming (C 1193) Parasite resistance is an increasing problem in livestock species, including horses. Equine deworming practices have historically involved a six-week rotational deworming schedule. However, these practices have led to parasite resistance to many of our available dewormers. This publication addresses the current recommendations for deworming based on fecal egg counts, including why parasite resista…
  • Equipment Maintenance and Troubleshooting for the Landscape and Garden (C 1247) This publication covers routine maintenance and troubleshooting for common motorized equipment (small engine) that is used by small farmers and gardeners. Gardening and landscape equipment can be an expensive investment for both consumers and professionals. However, quality equipment can last a lifetime when cared for properly. Typically, you get what you pay for when it comes to equipment. Higher…
  • Essential pH Management in Greenhouse Crops: pH and Plant Nutrition (B 1256) Your goal as a greenhouse grower is to maintain a stable pH over the life of the crop. This is not an easy task since many factors can affect pH in the growing substrate. The pH can go up or down within several weeks of the crop cycle and if you wait for deficiency or toxicity symptoms to develop, you have already compromised the health of the crop and you r profits. Knowing all factors involved i…
  • Establishing a Pecan Orchard (B 1314) A well-planned, organized orchard will be more efficient, require less input and offer larger potential returns. Select the orchard location based on its soil type, drainage, water table and land topography. Straight rows in planted orchards make maintenance, irrigation and harvest easier. Tree growth and spacing requirements can also be anticipated for the early planting and subsequent orchard th…
  • Estimating Crude Protein Variability and Savings of Broiler Feeds Using Microsoft Excel (B 1430) This publication describes Microsoft Excel workbooks designed to calculate the effects of dividing ingredients into above- and below-average portions (2-bin method) and the costs of providing nutrients at specified confidence levels.
  • Estrous Synchronization for Beef Cattle (B 1232) Estrous (heat) synchronization in beef cattle involves manipulating the females' estrous cycle so they can be bred at about the same time. The normal 21-day estrous cycle in beef cattle can be altered by following an effective estrous synchronization protocol. Numerous estrous synchronization protocols have been developed that use a combination of different drugs and products to alter hormonal cha…
  • Estrus Synchronization Programs for Natural Service (B 1544) Cattle producers commonly evaluate reproductive performance by determining how many cows became pregnant during the breeding season. Although pregnancy rates are important, when the females become pregnant within the breeding season is a major component of cow-calf profitability. Cows that become pregnant early in the breeding season calve earlier in the calving season. Consequently, they have mor…
  • European Gypsy Moth Update for Georgia and the Southeast (B 1492) Currently, European gypsy moth is one of the top quarantine species in the United States. Thanks to the efforts of the U.S. Forest Service and other organizations, such as the Slow the Spread Foundation, the spread of European gypsy moth has slowed dramatically and has yet to become established in Georgia. However, residents and commercial landscape/nursery persons should continually monitor for t…
  • Evaluating and Interpreting Application Uniformity of Center Pivot Irrigation Systems (C 911) With rising fuel prices it is increasingly important that irrigation systems apply water uniformly in order to achieve maximum benefit from the water applied. The uniformity of water application under a center pivot is determined by setting out cans or rain gauges along the length of the pivot, bringing the irrigation system up to proper operating pressure, and letting the system pass over them.
  • Evaluating Common Equine Performance Classes (B 1401) When competing in youth horse judging contests or events at horse shows, it is important to have a good understanding of basic performance events that may be encountered. This publication is designed to give a basic overview of common hunt seat and western pleasure performance classes. It is by no means comprehensive of all events that may be seen and does not go in-depth on any one event.
  • Evaluating Fruit Quality of Citrus Varieties in Georgia, 2020-21 (AP 127-1) The commercial citrus industry in Georgia has only recently been established, with most groves planted after 2014. Initially, satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu) on trifoliate rootstocks (Poncirus trifoliata) were planted for their cold-hardiness, seedlessness, and ease of peeling. Satsuma fruits begin to attain commercial maturity in early November and usually avoid hard freezes in southern Georgia…
  • Evaluating Fruit Quality of Citrus Varieties in Georgia, 2021 (C 1275) The commercial citrus industry in Georgia has only recently been established, with most groves planted after 2014. Initially, satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu) on trifoliate rootstocks (Poncirus trifoliata) were planted for their cold-hardiness, seedlessness, and ease of peeling. Satsuma fruits begin to attain commercial maturity in early November and usually avoid hard freezes in southern Georgia…
  • Evaluating Fruit Quality of Citrus Varieties in Georgia, 2021-22 (AP 127-2) Note: This publication contains data from an average of the 2020-21 and 2021-22 orange harvest seasons (exceptions noted in the chart). The commercial citrus industry in Georgia has only recently been established, with most groves planted after 2014. As of 2022, approximately 75% of the 3,300 acres of citrus planted in Georgia are satsumas, but that proportion is trending downward. To strengthen t…
  • Evaluating Horse Conformation (B 1400) When examining horses for conformation, either when considering a purchase or competing in horse judging contests, it is important to break things down into key principles to avoid becoming overwhelmed when putting the overall picture together. There are five main criteria to evaluate when examining a horse's conformation: balance, structural correctness, way of going, muscling, and breed/sex char…
  • Exobasidium Leaf And Fruit Spot of Blueberry (C 1142) Exobasidium leaf and fruit spot, caused by the fungus Exobasidium maculosum, is an emerging disease affecting both southern highbush and rabbiteye blueberries. In addition to direct yield loss due to fruit drop, lesions on remaining fruit compromise the aesthetic qualities of the fruit as well as the taste, rendering them unmarketable. This circular provides the most current knowledge of this impo…
  • Experiments and Observations on Growing Mayhaws as a Crop in South Georgia and North Florida (C 966) Limited information is available on the commercial production of mayhaws; thus, the objective of our research has been to: 1) determine if mayhaws are adapted to commercial orchard production, 2) identify cultivars with excellent cropping ability and quality, and 3) identify potential problems in their commercial production, such as insects and diseases.
  • Extending the Growing Season for Lettuce in Georgia Using Shade Cloth and High Tunnels (C 1241) Georgia growers can reliably produce lettuce in shaded high tunnels to capitalize on summer markets. This publication is an overview of using shading to grow lettuce in a high tunnel during the summer season when it is too hot to grow in the field.
  • Factors Affecting Calving Difficulty (B 943) Calving difficulty, otherwise known as dystocia, may result in reduced calf performance, delayed estrus and, in some cases, loss of the calf and/or dam. This publication discusses several factors affecting calving difficulty and provides management suggestions that may be useful to prevent its occurrence.
  • Facts for County Planners: Set-Backs for Poultry Houses (C 931) One of the most important components of a zoning ordinance for poultry farms relates to the set-back distance required for the location of poultry production houses. It is important that set-back requirements for poultry houses be based on facts rather than emotions.
  • Facts for County Planners: Zoning Issues and Poultry Production (C 932) Georgia poultry farmers are among the best in the world at growing chickens using state of the art technology, housing systems, and best management practices. To protect this vital business for Georgia farmers, it is important that agricultural zoning ordinances be prudently devised and factually based.