Contact Your County Office
112 publications were found on Animal-and-Dairy-Science
  • Acorn Toxicosis in Beef Cattle (C 1074) Autumn and winter are busy seasons for beef cattle producers, and many times grazing and cattle management are not as tightly regulated as in other times of the year. Many Southeastern cattle operations include pastureland that encompasses or borders oak timbers; most North American oak trees are considered toxic. Therefore, when cattle venture into timber land in search of grazing, there is an in…
  • Adoption of Mastitis Control Technologies in the Southeast to Reduce Mastitis and Improve Milk Quality (B 1433) Mastitis continues to be a major livestock disease afflicting the U.S. dairy industry. As the industry strives to improve milk quality to meet consumer as well as exportation demands, the legal limit for bulk tank sec will likely be reduced from 750,000/ml to 400,000/ml in the near future. It is estimated that between 10 and 20% of US dairy farms, mostly located in the Southeast, are currently at …
  • Alfalfa Management in Georgia (B 1350) Alfalfa is a high-yielding, perennial legume that is well-suited to hay, silage, or pasture production. Alfalfa is known as the “Queen of Forages” because it produces an excellent quality, high-protein forage. These properties make alfalfa one of the most widely-grown crops in the world.
  • Antibiotic Therapy in Mastitis Control for Lactating and Dry Cows (B 1516) Antibiotic therapy continues to play an important role in the control of mastitis in dairy cows. Lactational therapy is effective against Streptococcus agalactiae but less successful against infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and other causes of mastitis. As a result, alternative treatment strategies have been developed, including a combination of both intramammary infusion and the parente…
  • Baleage Production and Use (B 1532) Implementing a baleage system takes consideration and planning. Producers need to weigh the benefits, challenges, and costs to optimize their forage production and livestock feeding operations. Baleage does have additional costs associate with it—including a wrapper, plastic, and plastic disposal. It also takes different management strategies to store and feed baleage to prevent spoilage when comp…
  • Basic Nutritional Guidelines for Equine Management (B 1356) Providing proper and adequate nutrition is a challenge all horse owners must face. Understanding your horse’s nutritional needs is important, not only to optimize performance, but also to ensure your horse’s safety. The following guidelines emphasize key points to keep in mind when determining how to meet your horse’s nutritional requirements.
  • Beef Cattle Showmanship: Tips for Showring Success (B 1554) The way exhibitors present cattle has changed tremendously in a century. Youth beef shows often have showmanship divisions that are very competitive. Being a showmanship division winner is a great achievement and worthy goal. New exhibitors should study and practice these basic skills for the best chance at success.
  • Beef Management Calendar (B 1161) This calendar contains a monthly listing of the common management practices needed for commercial beef herd production in Georgia. Some are recommended at a certain time of the year and others are recommended when calves are a certain age or at a certain point in their reproductive cycle.
  • Bits 101 (B 1379) Bit selection is a critical area of consideration for riders of all disciplines and levels. For many horse enthusiasts, lack of knowledge about bit types and functions, as well as common misconceptions held in the horse industry, can make choosing an appropriate bit a difficult process.
  • Body Condition Scoring Beef Cows (B 1308) Body condition scoring (BCS) is an easy and economical way to evaluate the body fat percentage of a cow. Cows can then be sorted and fed according to nutritional needs. Body condition scoring can be an effective tool for cattle producers who cannot weigh cattle, and it may be an even better measurement of cow condition and reproductive performance than weight. Most studies show that body condition…
  • Bull Buyer's Guide (C 553) Bull procurement decisions can greatly impact your future calf crops and herd genetics for many years. Selecting and buying a herd bull is the quickest way to make genetic improvement in your herd. The selection process must include looking for those traits that are economically important and highly heritable. Demand and buy bulls with total performance that will improve your herd. This publicatio…
  • Calf Health Basics (B 1500) Calf health is a key variable for calf growth and performance. Producers should not expect to know all calf health issues, causes, and the most successful treatments. Instead, a producer's main goal should be to accurately identify and differentiate normal from abnormal in a calf's physical state and behavior. The topics discussed in this publications are intended to help producers notice key area…
  • Calibration of Center Pivot Irrigation Systems for Wastewater Applications (B 1458) This publication was developed to provide farmers applying animal wastewater with step-by-step instructions to calibrate their center pivot irrigation systems. Within each step, the publication provides reasoning for that step and any equations to calculate the needed values. Along with instructions, the publication also provides a fillable table to collect data and charts to help determine applic…
  • Calibration of Manure Spreaders (C 825) This publication primarily focuses on rear discharge, twin spinner spreaders common for poultry litter application in the southeast.
  • Caring for the Older Horse: Common Problems and Solutions (B 1368) Horses have relatively long life spans compared to other livestock and companion animals, often living into their late 20s and early 30s. Many horses have productive careers into their 20s. In fact, in many disciplines, horses do not peak until their teenage years. Good nutrition, maintenance and veterinary care allow horses to lead longer and more productive lives. However, as horses age, their n…
  • Center Pivot Calibration for Wastewater: A Field Reference Guide (C 1084) This publication is intended to be used by those familiar with calibrating a center pivot system. The circular lists the steps, calculations, and charts needed to calibrate a center pivot irrigation system pumping wastewater, without explanations of the process itself. The PDF version contains worksheets and formulas. The step-by-step calibration procedure includes determining: the wetted diamete…
  • Common Terms Used in Animal Feeding and Nutrition (B 1367) The purpose of this publication is to serve as an educational reference and resource to those who are interested in animal feeding and nutrition. Our primary objective is to list the common terms used when discussing animal feeding. This listing will also be helpful when reading articles on animal feeding and nutrition, feed analysis reports or tags associated with feeds sold in the market.
  • Considerations for Using By-Product Feeds (B 862) By-product feeds come from a variety of sources, including grain processing, production of human foods and beverages, and manufacturing of fiber products. Although many of these feeds have been used for years, others are relatively new. Research has been conducted on most by-product feeds and the guidelines for their use are well documented; however, limited information is available on the feeding…
  • Control of Mastitis and Milk Quality in Dairy Goats through Immunization (B 1446) Prevalence of mastitis in dairy goats ranges between 5% and 30%, with Staphylococcus spp., otherwise known as the coagulase-negative staphylococci, identified as the most frequent cause of infection. These staphylococci produce persistent subclinical mastitis with markedly elevated somatic cell counts (SCC), which may lead to clinical symptoms. Prevention is the key to controlling staphylococcal …
  • Cow Behavior: A Critical Factor to Consider Under Heat Stress (B 1442) Cow behavior is critical for animal well-being and performance and influenced by many factors, such as heat stress. Under thermo-neutral conditions, cows spend half a day lying down and the rest of the time is distributed into standing, feeding and milking. However, when cows are exposed to heat stress, they spend less time lying down but more time standing up. The altered cattle behavior by heat …
  • Creep Feeding Beef Calves (B 1315) Creep feeding is the practice of providing supplemental feed (grain or forage) to nursing calves. This is usually done with the use of a creep gate, which is large enough for calves to enter the feeding area but too small to allow cows to pass. Creep feeding systems vary from grain-based energy supplements to limit-fed protein supplements to creep grazing. Each system generally produces increased …
  • Cutting Costs, Not Corners: Managing Cattle in Tough Times (B 1373) Cutting costs allows producers to survive during trying times and also teaches valuable lessons that may actually increase profits in future years. Cutting corners, on the other hand, may save some money in the short-run but ultimately will have very detrimental effects.
  • Dairy Business Analysis Project: 1999 Summary for Florida and Georgia Dairies (B 1205-1) The Dairy Business Analysis Project was initiated in 1996 to measure and document the financial performance of Florida dairy businesses using standardized accounting measures, so uniform comparisons could be made among participants. Formal collaboration between the Universities of Florida and Georgia began in 1998. This publication presents the results from fiscal year 1999 information.
  • Dairy Business Analysis Project: 2005 Summary for Florida and Georgia Dairies (B 1205-2) Financial data for the year 2005 were collected from participating dairy farms and screened for completeness and validity. Each dairy farm then received a benchmark report detailing its financial results compared to the average results for the other participants and the six dairy farms with the highest net farm income per cwt. This benchmark report is discussed with the dairy farms to identify cha…
  • Dairy Genetic Benchmarks (B 1203) This publication provides genetic benchmarks for Holstein herds processed by Dairy Records Management Systems. Examples for using and applying benchmark values are provided; however, this publication should be viewed primarily as a comprehensive resource of genetic benchmark values. These values will be useful to dairy producers, dairy managers, consultants, veterinarians and agribusiness represen…
  • Dairy Herd Synchronization Programs (B 1227) This publication describes dairy herd synchronization programs will help improve your reproductive management efficiency. Try the one that fits your management system the best. Both estrus and ovulation synchronization programs will help get more animals bred more efficiently. Feeding open animals extra days can be costly to producers. Identify open animals and pick the best breeding alternative f…
  • Dairy Judging Terminology: A Guide to Saying What She is and Not What She Isn't (B 1234) This guide is designed to help you improve your reasons for your placings in dairy cattle evaluations. Slowly incorporate new terms into your oral reasons and your ability to describe what you see will continue to improve. Concentrate on what you see instead of what you don't see. You only have 2 ½ minutes to justify your placings. Use I.D. points, and Practice! Practice! Practice!
  • Dairy Production and Management Benchmarks (B 1193) This publication provides production and management benchmarks for Holstein herds processed by Dairy Records Management Systems. Some examples of using and applying benchmark values are provided. However, this publication should be viewed primarily as a comprehensive resource of production and management benchmark values. These benchmarks will be useful to dairy producers, dairy managers, consulta…
  • Dairy Reproduction Benchmarks (B 1210) This publication provides reproduction benchmarks for Holstein herds processed by Dairy Records Management Systems. Some examples of using and applying benchmark values are provided; however, this publication should be viewed primarily as a comprehensive resource for reproduction benchmark values. These benchmarks will be useful to dairy producers, dairy managers, consultants, veterinarians and ag…
  • Dealing with Pasture, Hay, Feed, and Livestock Losses After Significant Weather Events (C 1165) As a result of significant weather events, many producers in Georgia may experience losses of pasture growth, hay stocks, feed supplies, and livestock. After such events occur, farmers will be assessing damage to fields, stock, and property for many days, weeks, months. This publication is intended to provide recommendations to farmers that have experienced adverse affects due to significant weath…
  • Developing a Storm Preparedness and Response Plan for Dairies (B 1525) The Southeast U.S. is susceptible to hurricanes and tropical storms every year. Hurricane season occurs from June 1 through November 30, and these storms are normally forecast several days in advance. Tornadoes, ice storms, thunderstorms, or straight-line winds—potentially damaging winds produced by thunderstorms—are rarely forecast with enough notice to prepare other than to hopefully warn employ…
  • Drought Management Strategies for Beef Cattle (B 1323) Drought conditions are a yearly occurrence in Georgia and have been prolonged in several areas over the past several years. These conditions can have severe impacts on cattle, and every cattleman should have a plan in place to minimize the effects of drought on the farm's finances. This publication describes several management strategies for producers to consider during drought conditions.
  • Drought-Related Cattle Feeding Problems (SB 51) Drought does not develop overnight but progressively over time. Proper management during a drought period can make or break a producer's ability to stay in the cattle business. One main concern during a drought period is feeding and nutrition of the cow herd. Several problems could arise due to drought conditions. A good producer should stay alert for warning signs and avoid potentially damaging s…
  • Equine Parasite Control: Moving Beyond Rotational Deworming (C 1193) Parasite resistance is an increasing problem in livestock species, including horses. Equine deworming practices have historically involved a six-week rotational deworming schedule. However, these practices have led to parasite resistance to many of our available dewormers. This publication addresses the current recommendations for deworming based on fecal egg counts, including why parasite resista…
  • Estrous Synchronization for Beef Cattle (B 1232) Estrous (heat) synchronization in beef cattle involves manipulating the females' estrous cycle so they can be bred at about the same time. The normal 21-day estrous cycle in beef cattle can be altered by following an effective estrous synchronization protocol. Numerous estrous synchronization protocols have been developed that use a combination of different drugs and products to alter hormonal cha…
  • Estrus Synchronization Programs for Natural Service (B 1544) Cattle producers commonly evaluate reproductive performance by determining how many cows became pregnant during the breeding season. Although pregnancy rates are important, when the females become pregnant within the breeding season is a major component of cow-calf profitability. Cows that become pregnant early in the breeding season calve earlier in the calving season. Consequently, they have mor…
  • Evaluating Common Equine Performance Classes (B 1401) When competing in youth horse judging contests or events at horse shows, it is important to have a good understanding of basic performance events that may be encountered. This publication is designed to give a basic overview of common hunt seat and western pleasure performance classes. It is by no means comprehensive of all events that may be seen and does not go in-depth on any one event.
  • Evaluating Horse Conformation (B 1400) When examining horses for conformation, either when considering a purchase or competing in horse judging contests, it is important to break things down into key principles to avoid becoming overwhelmed when putting the overall picture together. There are five main criteria to evaluate when examining a horse's conformation: balance, structural correctness, way of going, muscling, and breed/sex char…
  • Factors Affecting Calving Difficulty (B 943) Calving difficulty, otherwise known as dystocia, may result in reduced calf performance, delayed estrus and, in some cases, loss of the calf and/or dam. This publication discusses several factors affecting calving difficulty and provides management suggestions that may be useful to prevent its occurrence.
  • Feeder Calf Grading Fundamentals (B 1481) Feeder cattle buyers, marketers, and producers are able to communicate the potential growth and carcass merit potential of individual and grouped calves using the USDA Feeder Cattle Grading Standards. Producers that are aware of these standards and their use in predicting carcass value are better suited to making breeding and management decisions to improve the value of future calf crops.
  • Feeding for Improved Yield of Milk Components (B 1512) This bulletin provides information for producers, nutritionists, and feed industry personnel on formulating diets to maintain or improve milk composition. The value of milk components is increasing more than skim milk, so this topic impacts all dairy farmers. The publication provides information on feeding dairy cows for improved yield of milk components, providing background on how the cow synthe…
  • Feeding Sprouted Wheat to Cattle (C 979) Sprouted grains are usually considered unsuitable for milling or distilling; however, they can serve as an excellent source of nutrients for cattle. Wheat, which is commonly used for human consumption, is usually priced higher than other feedstuffs and is typically not utilized for livestock consumption. Sprouted wheat, however, is discounted heavily at the mill and may be economically feasible to…
  • Feeding Strategies for Peak Performance in Horses (B 1365) Nutrition can play a key role in achieving peak athletic performance in horses. This publication discusses ways to enhance feeding strategies to maximize training and conditioning programs and keep horses in peak physical condition. It also includes a Body Condition Scoring table.
  • Feeding Whole Cottonseed to Dairy Cows and Replacements (SB 59) Whole cottonseed is an excellent feed for dairy cattle due to its high level of fiber, protein and energy (fat) in a compact package. It can be fed just as it comes from the gin without processing or may be pelleted before feeding. Whole cottonseed can also be used to stretch limited forage supply. Dairymen should capitalize on this situation as much as possible. Some limiting factors to consider …
  • Fences for Horses (B 1192) Fences are necessary to safely confine horses yet provide them with the opportunity to exercise and graze. Because of the natural flight response of horses, they tend to injure themselves in fences more than most other livestock. In addition, many horses are extremely valuable and that justifies the extra cost of building a fence that is safe, strong and attractive. When selecting a fence, conside…
  • Forage Systems for Horses in Georgia (B 1224) A good pasture and forage program can provide quality feed and normally will be the most efficient and economical means of providing a substantial part of equine rations. In Georgia, we are fortunate to have a mild climate, soils suitable for producing forages and a good selection of highly productive forage species. With careful planning and good management, adequate grazing can be supplied for u…
  • Forage Systems for Stocker Cattle (B 1392) This publication provides a guide to the various forage systems that could be used for stocker development and provides guidelines for managing grazing or hay harvests for optimum forage yield and quality.
  • Forage Use and Grazing Herd Management During a Drought (C 914) This brief management guideline provides producers with specific management tactics that may minimize the potential for short- and long-term problems. These tactics, categorized in order of early, advanced, and severe drought stages, are based on specific characteristics including water loss, forage growth, and rainfall.
  • Freeze Branding Cattle (C 904) To improve efficiency, cattle producers should place a high priority on identifying individual cattle and maintaining accurate records. One type of permanent identification is branding.
  • Genomic Testing in Beef Cattle: How Does it Work? (B 1506) Genomic testing is not a new idea in the eyes of science, but its application in today's beef industry is still met with some confusion. The purpose of this publication is to explain to county agents and producers how genomic testing works, how to use the results, and why this technology is valuable to cattlemen. This bulletin covers a simple history of genetic technology; parentage testing and si…
  • GPS Guidance Options for Forage Systems (B 1546) Some of the most widely adopted precision agriculture technologies include guidance systems that utilize a Global Positioning System (GPS). Although these technologies are most commonly utilized in row-crop agricultural systems, they also have many potential benefits in forage-based production systems. With so many different options to choose from, it can be a daunting task to determine which tech…
  • Guidelines for Using Feeds Containing Aflatoxin in Dairy Rations (SB 57) Aflatoxin is formed in stressed plants by the mold Aspergillius flavus. The mycotoxin is produced by an actively growing mold. The mold can be present without mycotoxin formation or the mycotoxin may be present without the mold. The formation of the mycotoxin can occur during storage if the feed is not kept dry. Aflatoxin can be found in many grains and forages but is most commonly found in corn, …
  • Halter Training Beef Cattle (C 1207) If you or someone you know is planning to halter train beef cattle, remember that the calf must be coached—it will not instinctively know what to do. Good coaching equals better results. This circular focuses on how to be a good coach during the halter training process for beef cattle.
  • Heat Detection Strategies for Dairy Cattle (B 1212) When the time comes to examine a herd's dairy reproductive management program, producers often want to discuss low conception rates. In most cases, however, inadequate heat detection is the much greater reproductive problem. Heat detection is the first step to getting an animal bred. According to DHIA records, producers in Georgia are only seeing a third of their heats. Missed heats are one of sev…
  • Herd Bull Management: Pre-Breeding Period (C 1062) The pre-breeding period (2 months prior to breeding) is essential for preparing bulls for a successful breeding season. This is particularly important for yearling bulls as they are still growing and will use for energy during their first breeding season. Pre-breeding management should include an adaptation period, breeding soundness exam, health care, exercise, and an evaluation of body condition…
  • Horn Fly Control to Increase Productivity in Dairy Heifers (B 1474) The implementation of horn fly control measures, such as aerosols, bait, strips, foggers, dust bags, traps, oilers, ear tags, pour-ons, natural predators, and insect growth regulators is instrumental in reducing the new infection rate, while existing mastitis cases can be eliminated with antibiotic therapy. Such management practices will promote animal health and well-being, enhancing producer pro…
  • How to Feed a Horse: Understanding the Basic Principles of Horse Nutrition (B 1355) With so many feed, supplement and hay choices available, many people find themselves wondering exactly what their horse needs for good health and nutrition. Many horse-feeding opinions and myths make deciding what to feed even more difficult. This publication explains your horse's nutritional needs, common guidelines to observe when feeding your horse and how to determine if your horse's nutrition…
  • How to Improve Your Percent Calf Crop (C 672) The number of calves sold is a major source of income from a cow/calf operation. A high percent calf crop increases profit. Reproductive efficiency is the first factor to consider in a breeding program. A beef cow must conceive in the first 40 to 60 days of the breeding season, have a live calf unassisted, breed back to calve every 12 months, and raise a calf that is heavy enough to be profitable.…
  • Impact of Grazing and Heat Stress on Intake of Dairy Cows (B 1559) Allowing dairy cows the opportunity to graze pasture is a practice frequently used by dairy producers. Some producers use grazing as the primary source of forage while others use it as a supplement to a partial total mixed ration (pTMR). There are several challenges associated with grazing—especially during periods of heat stress—that producers should take into account to maintain intake and produ…
  • Impact of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) on Reproduction in Cattle (B 1422) Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), commonly referred to as “Rednose,” is a disease resulting from bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1). The detriment of the disease, as well as the positive benefits vaccination can have on a reproductive program, needs to be on the forefront of a producer's herd health program.
  • Implanting Beef Cattle (B 1302) Implanting nursing calves with a growth stimulant is one of the most economically justifiable practices available in the beef industry. Implants have been shown to increase weaning weights of nursing calves in hundreds of research trials. Stocker and feedlot calves exhibit even greater responses than nursing calves. Implanting returns more revenue per dollar invested than any other management prac…
  • Improving Artificial Insemination Techniques (B 1325) Using incorrect A.I. techniques can lower the overall success rate of the A.I. breeding program. Most producers learned correct semen handling techniques and insemination procedures at one time; unfortunately, many have developed bad habits that have lowered their success rates. This publication reviews proper procedures that should help eliminate some of those common mistakes.
  • Improving Dairy Heifer Reproductive Management (B 1235) Reproductive management of dairy heifers is one area in which many dairy producers can improve. Heifers are the most fertile animals in a herd and should have the greatest genetic potential. Dairy producers need to pay more attention to getting heifers bred sooner and breeding them to genetically superior bulls. This publication describes methods for improving dairy heifer reproductive management.
  • Is Your Heifer Fit to Show? A Guide to Fitting and Showing Dairy Animals (B 1427) Every animal emerging from the pasture or barn needs time and attention to get her show-ring ready. The showman on the other end of the halter needs to be prepared as well. Faults in either fitting or showing could lead to a less successful show experience than one might have hoped for. This publication offers advice on fitting and showing dairy animals, including the updated PDCA scorecard, maxim…
  • Maintaining a Clean Water Trough for Cattle (C 1264) Clean water for cattle is important for animal health and production and water delivery systems require routine maintenance and monitoring.
  • Maintaining Good Egg Quality: A Guide for Small Producers (C 1230) The quality of an egg involves both the exterior and interior qualities of the egg. Egg quality includes the cleanliness of the shell, soundness of the shell, thickness of the albumen, and color of the yolk. Good egg quality is critical to maintaining the hatching potential of eggs, as improper handling or storage of eggs will reduce the ability of the eggs to hatch and produce good quality chicks…
  • Management Strategies to Reduce Heat Stress, Prevent Mastitis and Improve Milk Quality in Dairy Cows and Heifers (B 1426) This publication describes management strategies to reduce heat stress, prevent mastitis and improve milk quality in dairy cows and heifers.
  • Managing Algal Blooms and the Potential for Algal Toxins in Pond Water (B 1445) Certain algae can cause serious problems when they become very abundant in drought, hot weather, unusual rainfall patterns, or after nutrient accumulation in pond water. Fortunately, most ponds do not experience toxin problems or dense algal blooms. Watching for the warning signs that lead to toxic algal bloom development is the best way to prevent toxin problems. This publication describes how t…
  • Managing and Feeding Lactating Dairy Cows in Hot Weather (B 956) Hot and humid environmental conditions stress the lactating dairy cow and reduce intake of the nutrients necessary to support milk yield and body maintenance. In Georgia, weather conditions are sufficiently hot and humid to reduce performance of dairy cows for five months or more each year. This publication presents methods that can be used to minimize the stress on dairy cows during hot weather a…
  • Managing Bermudagrass Stem Maggots (B 1484) This publication summarizes the latest and most relevant information regarding the management of the bermudagrass stem maggot (BSM), including biological, cultural, physical and chemical mitigation strategies. In addition to information about how to control the pest, this bulletin provides detailed information about the history, identification, and biology of the bermudagrass stem maggot.
  • Managing Endometritis in the Dairy Herd (B 1450) When it comes to managing a dairy herd, infections and inflammation of the cow's uterus can have negative implications for animal welfare, milk production, and rebreeding capacity. Maintaining uterine health is essential for proper ovarian function and the creation of a uterine environment that is favorable for successful pregnancy. Although all production species can suffer from disruptions to ut…
  • Managing Fish Ponds During Drought (SB 49) Dry weather tests pond design limits for water retention, watershed area and depth. Without adequate rainfall, ponds and the property around them lose value and the pond owner can lose the fish or have to spend substantial amounts of money for weed control or pond renovation. Over the past decade, drought conditions have been the normal weather pattern across the southeastern United States. Pond d…
  • Managing Mastitis in Dairy Heifers to Improve Overall Herd Health (B 1416) Prevalence of mastitis in unbred, breeding-age and pregnant dairy heifers is higher than formerly realized. Infected mammary quarters, especially those with Staph. aureus IMI, exhibit reduced mammary gland secretory potential, marked leukocyte infiltration and the accompanying inflammation. Both nonlactating and lactating commercial antibiotic infusion products have been used successfully to cure …
  • Managing Mastitis through Proper Dry-Off Procedures (B 1447) Research has demonstrated that proper dry-off methods are vital in promoting udder health during the nonlactating period and at calving. For high producing cows, it may be necessary to decrease dietary energy over the last 1-2 weeks of lactation by increasing fiber and eliminating grain. Abrupt cessation of milking is probably as good as intermittent milking with a diet change for low and medium p…
  • Managing the Pregnant Mare (B 1465) To have a successful equine breeding program, producers must be able to ensure delivery of a healthy foal while maximizing the health of the mare. The information in this bulletin is designed to provide basic concepts in pregnant mare management.
  • Measuring the Dry Matter Content of Feeds (SB 58) Adjust rations for the dry matter (DM) content of each feed, especially when wet feeds, such as silage, are fed. Small changes in the DM content will change the nutrient profile of the ration. The potential results of not monitoring the DM content of wet feeds and adjusting rations accordingly are a combination of problems including decreased animal performance and feed efficiency and increased he…
  • Meat Goat Production in Georgia (B 1168) Goats are the most widely-dispersed meat animals and have been raised for centuries to provide meat, milk, fiber, cashmere and leather. Due to their small size, adaptability to harsh environments and availability, they have been more popular in nations lacking refrigeration, animal management skills and modern transportation. This publication deals solely with Spanish or meat-type goats in Georgia…
  • Mineral Supplements for Beef Cattle (B 895) Beef cattle require a number of minerals for optimal growth and reproduction. Selecting the correct mineral supplement is important for maintaining healthy animals, and optimal growth and reproduction.
  • Nutritional and Metabolic Disorders of Southeastern Beef Cattle (B 1503) In the Southeastern U.S., beef cattle producers focus on forage management and maximizing the grazing season. To that end, Southeastern cattle spend the vast majority of their lives either grazing or consuming stored forage. Cereal grains and coproduct feeds are also commonly used nutritional supplements for cattle in times of elevated nutrient requirement. Any disease or disorder in the beef herd…
  • Oxygen Depletion in Ponds (C 1048) Fish ponds may experience a loss of oxygen at any time of the year, depending on the weather and amount of nutrient enrichment the pond has received; however, most oxygen depletions occur in warm weather and usually follow a period of cloudy, overcast conditions. Low oxygen concentration in pond water means stress and possibly death for the pond fish. When fish die from low oxygen, there can be se…
  • Reproductive Management of Commercial Beef Cows (B 864) Reproductive efficiency has long been recognized as the most important aspect of commercial beef production. This publication explains how improved herd management and selection for reproductive performance can substantially increase the percent calf crop.
  • Selecting a Beef Breed (C 859) New cattle producers frequently ask, “Which breed should I choose?” This question brings cold chills to many knowledgeable cattle producers and excitement to just as many enthusiastic breeders. The diversity of resources and management capabilities of any operation makes this question difficult to answer.
  • Selenium in Georgia Soils and Forages: Importance in the Livestock Industry (B 1390) This publication highlights the role of selenium in animal nutrition; selenium concentration and distribution in soils and feedstuffs (grains and forages) produced in various parts of the United States and in Georgia; disorders resulting from Selenium deficiency or toxicity; various methods of selenium supplementation; and recommendations for selenium management in Georgia. This publication is int…
  • Setting Goals to Improve Breeding Strategies (B 1213) Problem identification is the first step in establishing objectives and goals to improve reproductive management in a dairy herd. Management is determining what must be done and achieving results through the efforts of yourself and your employees. Use the following worksheet to evaluate herd reproductive performance and set goals to improve your breeding strategies. Then develop a tactical plan to…
  • Small Farm Nutrient Management Primer: For Un-permitted Animal Feeding Operations (B 1293) Producers need to be aware of the impacts that manure can have on water and air quality. However, management of manure and other byproducts of livestock and poultry production has important impacts on farm profitability, neighbor relations and protecting soil and water quality. This publication covers: Farm and Homestead Maps; Manure Storage and Treatment; Nutrient Budgeting with Nitrogen and Pho…
  • Solving Postpartum Breeding Problems (B 1211) Early identification and diagnosis of reproductive problems through a herd health program are an essential part of successful dairy management. A cow must be pregnant by 85 days postpartum to achieve a 12-month calving interval. This is the backbone of sound reproductive management in an economical dairy business. Many factors during the dry period, parturition and early lactation can lower reprod…
  • Somatic Cell Count Benchmarks (B 1194) This publication provides somatic cell count benchmarks for Holstein herds processed by Dairy Records Management Systems. Some examples of using and applying benchmark values are provided. However, this publication should be viewed primarily as a comprehensive resource of somatic cell count benchmark values. These benchmarks will be useful to dairy producers, dairy managers, consultants, veterinar…
  • Spanish Series: Estrategias de Detección de Celo para Ganado Lechero (B 1212-SP) La detección de celo es el primer paso para hacer que un animal se preñe. De acuerdo con los registros de la Asociación Nacional para la Información de Hatos Lecheros (DHIA por sus siglas en inglés) los productores en Georgia solo ven un tercio de los celos. Los celos perdidos son uno de varios factores que contribuyen a intervalos largos entre partos. Al aumentar el número de celos observados es …
  • Spanish Series: Programas de Sincronización de Hatos (B 1227-SP) Los datos del programa Dairy Records Management Systems (DRMS) demuestran que hatos de alta producción tienen índices de concepción bajos, y estos tienen también pasarán menos días abiertos y tienen una mayor taza de detección de celo. [This publication describes dairy herd synchronization programs will help improve your reproductive management efficiency. Try the one that fits your management sy…
  • Spanish Series: Resolviendo Problemas Después del Parto (B 1211-SP) La identificación y el diagnóstico temprano de problemas reproductivos relacionados a nuestro programa de salud del hato es una parte esencial de un manejo eficiente de nuestra producción lechera. Muchos factores durante el periodo horro (seco), el parto y la lactancia temprana pueden disminuir la eficiencia reproductiva. Estos incluyen la mastitis, quistes ováricos, falta de condición física (bod…
  • Speaking Spanish to Improve Dairy Cattle Reproduction (B 1344) This publication contains English-Spanish translations of common dairy reproduction terminology to help producers better use Spanish to evaluate reproductive management and communicate with employees.
  • Sport Fish Management in Ponds (B 732) Properly managed ponds supply an abundance of fish for recreation and nutrition. Stocking methods and catch rates are used to keep pond balance. Liming and fertilization recommendations for ponds in Georgia are important when planning fish harvest goals. A variety of fish species for pond stocking are discussed in this publication. Methods to improve pond balance, including fish population renovat…
  • Strategically Using Pregnancy Diagnosis to Identify Nonpregnant Cows (B 1538) Pregnancy diagnosis is an important part of reproductive management in productive beef cow-calf operations. Open cows decrease profitability as they utilize similar resources as pregnant cows without producing a marketable calf to justify these costs. With the move toward more efficient operations and inclusion of artificial insemination (AI) and other reproductive technologies in cattle productio…
  • Tattoo Application in Beef Cattle (C 1223) Livestock shows and purebred sales often require an ear tattoo as a form of permanent identification. If the rules of your next event require a tattoo, it is imperative for it to be accurate and easily read. Mistakes or improper application of tattoos can be very frustrating situations for everyone involved. Illegible, infected or incorrect digits are unfortunately common. Following a few key step…
  • The Importance of Stripping Foremilk on Milk Letdown, Milk Quality, and Mastitis Detection (B 1543) According to the National Mastitis Council, the recommended milking procedure for dairy animals is 1) provide low-stress environment, 2) check foremilk and udder for mastitis, 3) wash or predip teats with an effective disinfectant, 4) completely dry teats with a single-use towel, 5) attach milking unit within 120 sec of teat stimulation, 6) adjust milking units as necessary, 7) shut off vacuum for…
  • UGA Basic Balancer (B 1371) The UGA Basic Balancer is a spreadsheet-based decision aid to formulate basic rations for beef cattle operations. The nutrient requirements used in this program are adapted from guidelines presented in the 2000 National Research Council publication “Nutrient Requirement of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition: Update 2000." The UGA Basic Balancer program consists of a feed library, least cost feed…
  • UGA Feed Cost Analyzer (B 1377) The UGA Feed Cost Analyzer is a spreadsheet-based decision aid to compare potential feedstuffs on a price per pound of crude protein and energy (total digestible nutrients; TDN). This program consists of a feed library prepopulated with some common feedstuffs, a least cost feedstuff analyzer, and a feedstuffs replacement calculator. Each page contains step by step directions on how to use this dec…
  • Understanding and Improving Forage Quality (B 1425) The goal of this publication is to guide the user to a better understanding of basic forage quality terms and to recommend management changes that will improve forage quality. To that end, our objectives are to explain how forage quality is measured, describe how to interpret a forage analysis, present the effects of management on forage quality, and list the key management strategies that can inc…
  • Understanding Beef Carcass Reports (B 1326) Many retained ownership programs offer producers the opportunity to receive a level of data from the feed-yard and packing plant that is rarely available after those animals leave the farm. Producers can use this information to make genetic changes in their herd to better the marketability of their calves. However, before this information can be utilized, producers must understand what these terms…
  • Understanding Gestation in the Mare and the Potential for Problems (B 1461) To have a successful equine breeding program, producers must successfully manage animals both pre- and post-breeding to ensure delivery of a healthy foal while maximizing the health of the mare. The following information is designed give a basic understanding of how to identify pregnant mares, to outline major events in pregnancy development, and to identify some primary issues that can cause comp…
  • Understanding Reproductive Events in the Mare for Successful Breeding Programs (B 1434) A solid understanding of mare cyclicity is the foundation on which to build or evaluate an equine breeding program. Horses differ from other species both in timing of cyclicity as well as endocrine patterns within a cycle. Basic principles can aid horse breeders in more effectively timing and breeding with or without hormone manipulation. This publication provides an in-depth explanation of the s…
  • Unless You Test, It’s Just a Guess: How to Take, Interpret, and Utilize a Forage Sample (C 1287) This circular is useful for anyone working directly with livestock producers on interpreting and using forage reports. It also provides a "checklist" for taking forage samples from hay or baleage bales. It summarizes how to properly collect a forage sample, read the basic components of the lab's report, and use the report for developing a basic feed plan.
  • Using a Rising Plate Meter to Measure Pasture Mass (B 1528) Measuring, monitoring, and managing forage requires producers to regularly measure how much forage mass is present and how quickly that forage is growing. By using a rising plate meter, producers can assess the forage mass across several pastures quickly and with reasonable accuracy. Then, by comparing available forage in individual paddocks from one week to another, producers can determine the gr…
  • Using Cotton Byproducts in Beef Cattle Diets (B 1311) Cotton byproducts offer a variety of feed ingredients that can lower the cost of beef cattle production. Cottonseed meal and whole cottonseed can be used in rations for any class of cattle. Gin trash and cottonseed hulls are low-energy feedstuffs that are used as a roughage source in high energy diets or as a partial energy replacement in mature cow diets. Cotton stalk residue can maintain a dry p…
  • Using Distillers Grains in Beef Cattle Diets (B 1482) With the growth of the ethanol industry in recent history, the availability of distillers grains, a byproduct of ethanol production, has increased. Distillers grains can serve as an excellent source of nutrients for beef cattle. However, several considerations must be taken into consideration before utilizing this resource. These include economics, nutrient content and potentially deleterious effe…
  • Using Live Animal Carcass Ultrasound in Beef Cattle (B 1337) One tool that aids producers in the efficient and profitable production of beef cattle is live animal carcass ultrasound. The use of carcass ultrasound is an economical way cattlemen can make genetic improvements in carcass traits, which will, in turn, put profits in their pockets.
  • Vaccination as a Tool to Control Mastitis in Dairy Cows (B 1501) Due to cows' universal exposure to manure, which contains E. coli and other gram-negative bacteria, as well as the requirement to maintain sec as low as possible, all cows should be vaccinated with one of the coliform vaccines available on the market. These vaccines have been proven to significantly reduce clinical coliform mastitis and have been shown to be profitable when incidence of clinical c…
  • Vaccine Handling: Producer Tips for Chuteside Success (B 1431) Vaccines are an integral part of a comprehensive herd health program. When used in conjunction with other management tools, vaccines can reduce both the risk and impact of disease in beef cattle herds. Nevertheless, when used inappropriately, vaccines can be virtually useless and, in some cases, result in impaired productivity and significant economic losses.
  • Visual Evaluation of Beef Cattle for Breeding (B 1556) Beef cattle evaluation is important for all segments of the cattle industry. Visual evaluation allows you to compare animals not only for various economically viable traits, such as growth performance and potential carcass merit, but also for traits that are indicators of functionality in each production environment, such as skeletal structure. These traits are often difficult to quantify and are …
  • Water Requirements and Quality Issues for Cattle (SB 56) Water is the most important nutrient for cattle. It accounts for 50 to 80 percent of an animal's weight and is involved in every physiological process. Cattle cannot adapt to water restriction and feed intake greatly decreases if water is restricted. Water availability and quality can become a major issue during a drought. It is important to check water sources frequently for water availability an…
  • What's the “Beef” with Methane Emission and Cattle Production? (B 1453) In recent years, global climate change has been one of the most frequently discussed scientific ideas in the popular press. Terms like “global warming” and “greenhouse gas” have been politicized with little discussion of what they really mean, shedding more heat than light on scientific discussions of changing climate. Concerns about the relative contributions of greenhouse gases from different in…
  • Windows User-Friendly Feed Formulation for Poultry and Swine (RB 438) This publication (WUFFDA) provides a program designed to help formulate feeds for poultry and swine. It is available in the following languages: Afrikaanse, Chinese, Croatian, English, French, Korean, Minnesotan, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Turkish and Farsi.