60 publications were found
A Dozen Egg Abnormalities: How They Affect Egg Quality
Egg production is the same for each hen whether a farm is producing on a small or large scale. There are a number of egg abnormalities that can occur, and some of these can impact egg quality and reduce the egg's grade based on USDA standards. Abnormalities may be a result of poor management, disease, nutritional deficiencies, or the age of the birds. This publication covers a dozen of the most co…
Amino Acid Content in Organic Soybean Meal for the Formulation of Organic Poultry Feed
Amino acids are essential building blocks of proteins and are obtained from plant and animal products. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the chicken, while others (essential amino acids) must be supplied in the diet. In organic poultry production, the sources of these essential amino acids must be organic. This publication compares the amino acid content, digestibility, and availability of or…
Application of Imaging Systems for Monitoring Poultry Well-being
In commercial poultry houses, bird density and distribution in drinking, feeding, and
resting zones are critical factors for evaluating flock productivity, bird health, and well-being. Proper distribution of chickens in the house greatly influences animal well-being and house environmental management. Currently, routine daily inspection of broiler flock distribution in commercial grow-out houses i…
Avian Academy Module: Poultry Nutrition
This module describes the role of energy in the body, how much energy is contained in our foods, and how to correctly identify the key nutrient classes that our bodies require from the foods we eat. All of these components are related to the general makeup of a commercial poultry diet. The module is designed to be one in a series of publications to supply relevant educational content related to th…
Basic Introduction to Broiler Housing Environmental Control
Research on improving broiler housing is ongoing. Energy costs are becoming more significant to the grower's bottom line and housing construction, equipment and operation will be paramount in helping to make sure the houses are operated as efficiently as possible. As technology and equipment is redesigned and developed, researchers will continue to examine how broiler housing can be heated, cooled…
Best Management Practices for Storing and Applying Poultry Litter
The nutrients and organic materials found in poultry litter/manure are extremely beneficial by-products, as evidenced by the fact that years of application have transformed north Georgia from a severely depleted landscape in the 1920s and 1930s to a productive and green one today. Over-application or improper storage of poultry litter, however, can cause nutrient contamination of the state's water…
Biomapping: An Effective Tool for Pathogen Control During Poultry Processing
U.S. poultry processors must meet regulatory requirements for Salmonella and Camplylobacter prevalence in all of the poultry products that they produce. Monitoring the efficacy of antimicrobial interventions (biomapping) during processing assists in meeting performance standards and improving microbiological quality of the products through better process control.
Biosecurity Basics for Poultry Growers
Biosecurity refers to procedures used to prevent the introduction and spread of disease-causing organisms in poultry flocks. Because of the concentration in size and location of poultry flocks in current commercial production operations and the inherent disease risks associated with this type of production, it is imperative that poultry producers practice daily biosecurity measures.
Biosecurity for On-Farm Pathogen Control in Poultry
Human campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are two of the most commonly reported gastrointestinal infections worldwide and poultry meat has been identified as the main source of infection. Controlling pathogen colonies of public health concern such as Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry flocks on the farm is critical for a successful overall food safety program. Biosecurity on the farm can con…
Calculating the Fertilizer Value of Broiler Litter
This publication gives a procedure to calculate the value of broiler litter based on prevailing retail selling prices of commercial fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
CNMP Development Checklist for Dry Litter Poultry CAFOs
This publication outlines the information needed to develop a Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan (CNMP) for dry poultry litter operations.
Coexisting with Neighbors: A Poultry Farmer's Guide
Conflict prevention measures can be both tangible and intangible in nature. Communication skills and disseminating information may be as important as minimizing odors or pests through improved management practices. The following are practices and suggestions that can help poultry farmers maintain or improve neighbor relations. Proper manure handling practices are foremost points to consider in avo…
Composting 101: How to Effectively Operate a Poultry Mortality Compost Bin
Bin composting daily mortality can be a useful, cost-effective management tool when practiced correctly. However, it can be environmentally harmful if it is not managed and monitored properly. This publication shows the necessary steps to obtain a compost product from daily poultry mortality using a bin composting method.
Composting Mass Poultry Mortalities
Composting is a natural process where beneficial microorganisms decompose and transform organic materials into a useful and biologically stable end-product that is safe for the environment. This process has worked well for many poultry producers nationwide as a means of processing their daily poultry mortality.
Considerations for County Planners: Components of Zoning Ordinances Relative to Poultry
Poultry farming is the number one agricultural enterprise in Georgia. It is important to protect this vital industry by developing prudently-devised and factually-based zoning ordinances. This publication discusses components and terminology when drafting ordinances related to poultry production.
Dust Control with Engineering Systems in Poultry Houses
High levels of dust in cage-free poultry house air can carry airborne microorganisms and endotoxins that, once inhaled, may trigger respiratory diseases in animals and/or their caretakers. Mitigating dust levels is imperative to protecting the health and well-being of the animals and their caretakers and improving the environmental stewardship of cage-free layer farms. Studies have concluded that …
Environmental Factors to Control when Brooding Chicks
The main objective in brooding chicks is to efficiently and economically provide a comfortable, healthy environment for growing birds. Temperature, air quality, humidity and light are critical factors to consider. Failure to provide the adequate environment during the brooding period will reduce profitability, resulting in reduced growth and development, poorer feed conversion, and increased disea…
Estimating Crude Protein Variability and Savings of Broiler Feeds Using Microsoft Excel
This publication describes Microsoft Excel workbooks designed to calculate the effects of dividing ingredients into above- and below-average portions (2-bin method) and the costs of providing nutrients at specified confidence levels.
Facts for County Planners: Set-Backs for Poultry Houses
One of the most important components of a zoning ordinance for poultry farms relates to the set-back distance required for the location of poultry production houses. It is important that set-back requirements for poultry houses be based on facts rather than emotions.
Facts for County Planners: Zoning Issues and Poultry Production
Georgia poultry farmers are among the best in the world at growing chickens using state of the art technology, housing systems, and best management practices. To protect this vital business for Georgia farmers, it is important that agricultural zoning ordinances be prudently devised and factually based.
Feeding Issues for Broiler Breeder Feather Cover
Feather coverage is important for both thermoregulation and disease prevention. Because feathers are made of protein, there are obvious nutritional factors that affect feather coverage in high yield broiler breeds. This publication summarizes the importance and structure of the feather and the feed-related factors that impact feather coverage.
Giant Miscanthus Grass as an Alternative Bedding in Poultry Houses
Pine shavings are the most popular bedding material used in poultry houses. Due in part to the expansion of the poultry industry, pine shavings are in short supply, and alternative bedding materials are being tested.
Giant miscanthus grass (GMG) is one such material. GMG is a perennial grass that is dried and chopped into one-inch pieces for bedding. When compared to pine shavings, GMG is a good…
Global Warming: How Does It Relate to Poultry?
This publication provides information relevant for agriculture and other industries that are under increasing public pressure to reduce emissions of certain atmospheric gases. Explanations are given about greenhouse gases, carbon footprints, reducing fossil fuel use, alternative energy sources, manure management and carbon credits. Knowing your carbon footprint or energy use can help poultry produ…
Guidelines for Prospective Contract Hatching Egg Producers
Producing more than 8 billion pounds of chicken meat requires the support of hatching egg producers. Hatching egg production is a very different business from broiler meat production, as it requires different management skills and greater labor commitments. Because of the uniqueness of the hatching egg business and the long-term investment demands for an operator, it is important that prospective …
Importance of Grit Removal from Commercial Shell Egg Processing Wastewater
This publication is designed to give commercial egg processors the information they need to understand and effectively deal with the wastewater grit generated from the conveying, washing and grading of table eggs.
Litter Quality and Broiler Performance
Quality of chicks, feed and water are all of great concern to broiler producers, but quality of litter in broiler houses is seldom given sufficient emphasis. This is unfortunate because birds are in continuous contact with litter. Litter conditions significantly influence broiler performance and, ultimately, the profits of growers and integrators. Litter is defined as the combination of bedding ma…
Management Guide for the Backyard Flock
This publication focuses on raising a small flock of chickens (50 or less) for meat and eggs (either for hatching or eating).
Maximizing Poultry Manure Use through Nutrient Management Planning
This publication provides current information about the appropriate application and most effective use of poultry fertilizer. It will also help poultry producers develop a simple nutrient management plan that meets permitting authority standards.
Maximum Ingredient Level Optimization Workbook for Estimating the Maximum Safe Levels of Feedstuffs
New feed ingredients are evaluated and introduced to the feed industry every year. The evaluation process is necessary and includes feeding birds different levels of the test ingredient to estimate the maximum safe level (MSL). The MSL is usually estimated with a multiple range test, ignoring the fact that this test is inappropriate for this type of feeding trials where the independent variable is…
Microalgae Utilization in Wastewater Treatment
Low-energy input systems that utilize microalgae and the natural biological process of photosynthesis can drive efficient wastewater treatment systems. This publication describes the use of microalgae in wastewater treatment.
Mislaid Egg Management in Cage-Free Hen Houses
Researchers have investigated the issue of mislaid eggs in cage-free housing and the possibility of reducing the incidence of floor eggs through management of lighting, litter and bedding, and nesting space, and the use of robotics. Methods with potential for managing mislaid or floor eggs in cage-free layer houses can be summarized as follows: 1. House-lighting time management: In cage-free aviar…
Mortality Composting Basics for Poultry Producers
Composting is an age-old practice that has been adapted as a means of daily animal mortality disposal and can be beneficial for the environment. This publication describes how to compost poultry mortalities.
Mortality Management Options for Georgia Poultry Producers
Poultry production facilities must deal with the disposal of farm mortalities on a daily basis. Death loss in animal production is an unfortunate reality that requires appropriate handling to prevent the spread of disease, the potential for odor and pest problems, and the possible contamination of surface and ground water. Each disposal method has advantages and disadvantages. Regardless of the me…
Nuisance Myths and Poultry Farming
This publication provides factual information about three common myths of poultry farming: that poultry farms will ruin the environment, that they smell, and that the air exhausted from poultry houses will damage property and cause health concerns.
Nutrition for the Backyard Flock
Providing the right nutrition for your chickens means ensuring that what they eat supplies all of the essential amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water that they will need to produce the meat or eggs you hope to collect. This publication provides an overview of what you should look for when choosing poultry feed and how to choose a diet that is appropriate for variou…
Nutritional Response Determination Optimization Workbook v. 1.0
An Excel workbook, Nutritional Response Determination Optimization (NuRDO). has been developed to simulate the optimal number or nutrient levels and replicates per level when planning nutritional requirement studies. With NuRDO, researchers can simulate data from what they think is the real shape of the response curve. They can then run up to 1,000 simulated experiments to see the combination of …
Nutritional Response Models: A Workbook to Fit Data From Nutritional Experiments to Several Models
This Excel workbook will allow you to fit data from nutritional experiments to several models. It includes a PowerPoint presentation that shows you how to use the Excel workbook to fit several regression models to experimental data. The models may be used to estimate nutritional requirements or the most economical feeding levels of critical nutrients. All you need is Microsoft Excel (with macros e…
Organic Poultry Production vs. Other Systems
There are a number of different poultry production systems available today, and consumers commonly confuse organic poultry production with other systems. Pasture-raised poultry and natural poultry are not organically produced, as they do not meet all or any of the standards set by the National Organic Program, which regulates and certifies production systems as "organic." Consumers should be aware…
Pen-size Optimization Workbook of Experimental Research Design (POWER for Poultry)
This publication contains an Excel spreadsheet to help poultry producers calculate the ideal number of birds to group into pens based on their operations and goals.
Poultry Disease Prevention Checklist
Disease prevention is much less stressful and costly than disease control and recovery. Biosecurity measures are a critical component of disease prevention. Use this list to rate your disease prevention practices and preparedness.
Poultry Drinking Water Primer
Water is a critical nutrient that receives little attention until a problem arises. Not only should producers make an effort to provide water in adequate quantity, they should also know what is in the water to be used in evaporative cooling systems and consumed by the birds.
Poultry Litter Application on Pastures and Hayfields
Poultry litter is widely used on pastures and hayfields in Georgia. There are many benefits when it is used wisely. Producers should use nutrient management planning and recommended rates to ensure poultry litter is used in ways that maximize its benefits without harming the environment.
Poultry Litter Composting for Backyard Flocks
Your coop is ready. You've built a covered run or exercise yard to keep your chickens safe from predators and wild birds that carry diseases. Your chicks are old enough to move outside, and you're eagerly awaiting your first fresh eggs.
In the meantime, your chickens are producing something else on a daily basis: manure. How do you handle all of that poultry poop so that your neighbors don't com…
Poultry Litter Sampling
Poultry litter is a mixture of poultry manure, feathers, wasted feed, and bedding material that contains nitrogen, phosphate, potash, and other nutrients essential for plant growth. Poultry litter can vary considerably in nutrient content due to bird type, feed composition, bedding materials used, clean-out frequency, storage and handling practices, use of litter amendments, and other factors. The…
Poultry Mortality Composting Management Guide
Disposal of dead birds can be a problem for poultry growers. Typical methods of mortality disposal include burial, incineration, rendering, and composting. Many states have banned the use of burial pits that historically have been used to dispose of dead birds. Incineration can be costly and raise air quality concerns, and the decreasing number of renderers further complicates disposal. Composting…
Poultry Mortality Disposal: Methods Following Catastrophic Loss
Mortality disposal following a natural disaster or catastrophic disease event can become a major challenge for poultry producers. Disposal decisions must balance animal health goals with those of environmental protection and safeguarding public health. In the event of catastrophic disease, humane destruction of infected or exposed poultry and proper disposal is needed to stop further spread of inf…
Poultry Processing: Measuring True Water Use Converting your plant from gpb to gpk
The goal of this publication is to introduce the development of a more accurate measurement of water-use efficiency based on the bulk quantities of materials handled at each processing step at a poultry slaughter plant.
Practical Use and Application of the Poultry Carbon Footprint Calculation Tool
The cumulative greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from any human activity are commonly referred to as the carbon footprint. The Poultry Carbon Footprint Calculation Tool was developed and designed specifically for poultry production farms. The tool can be used to estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from pullet, breeder, and broiler grow-out farms.
This publication provides an overview for pou…
Preventing Salmonella Colonization of Chickens: Electrostatic Application of Electrolyzed Oxidative Acidic Water
Electrolyzed oxidative water applied using electrostatic spraying is an effective means of eliminating pathogenic and indicator populations of bacteria from hatching eggs. Using this method in a pilot scale hatchery, the percentage of chickens that were colonized with Salmonella was dramatically reduced. These studies demonstrate that the use of EO water in combination with electrostatic spraying …
Spanish Series: Compostaje Básico Para el Avicultor
Composteo es una vieja práctica, muy benéfica para el medio ambiente, utilizada para la eliminacion y disposición diaria de los animales muertos.
[Composting is an age-old practice that has been adapted as a means of daily animal mortality disposal and can be beneficial for the environment. This publication describes how to compost poultry mortalities.]
The Georgia Water Stewardship Act
The Water Stewardship Act is intended to demonstrate Georgia’s deep commitment to the conservation of critical freshwater supplies. This publication provides an overview of the provisions and obligations for local governments, public systems and state agencies.
The Georgia Water Stewardship Act: Farm Use Water Withdrawal Permits
The Water Stewardship Act is intended to demonstrate Georgia’s deep commitment to the conservation of critical freshwater supplies. This publication provides an overview of the major provisions affecting Georgia farmers and their use of the state’s most precious resource: WATER.
Three Workbooks to Help Estimate Experimental Power
Experimental power determinations are very important to agriculture and other applied sciences. It is necessary to be able to detect
small differences when human and animal health or production profitability are in question. Yet textbooks on biostatistics for
agriculturalists generally barely introduce the subject of how to design an experiment to detect some important difference between
Troubleshooting Salmonella in Poultry Processing Plants: Case Studies
This publication provides suggestions regarding the proper tuning of a poultry processing plant to meet the USDA-FSIS standards for Salmonella levels, regardless of incoming Salmonella levels.
Understanding Laboratory Wastewater Tests: I. Organics (BOD, COD, TOC, O&G)
For most people a complete understanding of the standard methods required to accurately complete critical wastewater analytical tests is not necessary. However, a fundamental understanding of the theory behind and working knowledge of the basic procedures used for each test, and the answers to commonly asked questions about each test can be a valuable tool for anyone involved in generating, monito…
Using Container Composters for Disposal of Poultry Mortality
Commercial poultry producers are looking for ways to improve their environmental impact and also to increase their profitability. Using container composters as a method of daily mortality disposal can be a viable option. Container composters are environmentally friendly compared to the incineration of carcasses, which can result in the emission of atmospheric particulates and greenhouse gases.
Validating Antimicrobial Interventions in Poultry Processing
Poultry processors have incorporated numerous antimicrobial interventions in the slaughter process to reduce the prevalence and/or concentrations of foodborne pathogens Salmonella and Campylobacter. The conventional process is to evaluate the efficacy of the incorporated antimicrobial interventions in reducing either indicator microorganisms or the foodborne pathogens immediately after the interve…
Water Reuse in Poultry Processing: Now addressed in the HACCP program
The USDA-Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) indicated that if water is to be reused in a poultry processing facility, then this reuse water must be accounted for in the plant’s HACCP program.
White Striping in Broiler Breast Meat
White striations in broiler breast meat tend to reduce customer confidence because severe white striping means that the cooked meat will be tougher than meat with low white striping. There is also higher fat content in meat with severe white striping. Consumers will not buy broiler breast meat with high fat and moderate to severe white striping because it is inferior in quality and nutritional val…
Windows User-Friendly Feed Formulation for Poultry and Swine
This publication (WUFFDA) provides a program designed to help formulate feeds for poultry and swine. It is available in the following languages: Afrikaanse, Chinese, Croatian, English, French, Korean, Minnesotan, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Turkish and Farsi.