Table of Contents
- Why Plan?
- 12 Ways to Prepare
- Four Phases of Emergency Management
- Household Documents & Finances
- General Home Safety Tips
- Emergency Planning - before, during, and after
- Power Outages
- Tornadoes and Hurricanes
- Winter Storms and Extreme Cold
- Hazardous Chemical Spills and Nuclear Accidents
- Public Health Emergencies
- Three Ways to Purify Water
- Isolation and Quarantine
- Home Emergency Preparedness Supplies List
- Grab-and-Go Kit for Automobile
- Acknowledgements & Resources
Communities across Georgia are subject to several natural disasters and emergencies, such as fires, flooding, severe storms, earthquakes, tornados, hurricanes, and public health emergencies. While we all hope that such occurrences never happen, history has shown that being prepared for disasters can limit its impact on you and your loved ones.
At the core of proper emergency planning is communication. Everyone in your household needs to be involved so that when an emergency strikes, everyone will know what to do. Once your household is prepared, it is time to look to your neighbors. In times of emergencies, your neighbors will probably be the first ones available to come to your aid. Find out in advance what resources you share and how you can work together for the good of one another.
It is important to note that during and right after a natural disaster, emergency services and government agencies may not be able to respond immediately to your needs. Their buildings, equipment, personnel, communications, and mobility may have been severely hampered by the event. For this reason, experts recommend that you should plan to be on your own for a minimum of three (3) days in the case of an evacuation. However, you should consider assembling a stay-at-home kit with supplies for two (2) weeks and at least seven (7) days of medications.
In the following sections, you will find guidance on emergency planning along with other essential information you will need in building a comprehensive home emergency preparedness plan. This guide should be reviewed annually and updated as needed. All family members should be aware of emergency plans.
12 Ways to Prepare
- Sign up for Alerts and Warnings
- Make A Plan
- Save for a Rainy Day
- Practice Emergency Drills
- Test Family Communication Plan
- Safeguard Documents
- Plan with Neighbors
- Make Your Home Safer
- Know Evacuation Routes
- Assemble or Update Supplies
- Get Involved in Your Community
- Document and Insure Property
This is all about creating a supply kit and plans for how and when to evacuate. A good way to start planning is to find out what types of disasters are most likely to happen in your area and available community resources. Then create a plan.
What are the main types of emergencies?
Floods: Any season
Floods are the most common and widespread of all-natural disasters and can occur nearly anywhere in the United States. Flooding can result from rain, snow, hurricanes, storm surge and overflows of dams and other water systems. Georgia alone has more than 4,600 dams, the majority of which are privately owned. Dam failures can occur with little warning, and the damage can be catastrophic. Flooding has been responsible for the deaths of more than 10,000 people since 1900. Property damage attributable to flooding now totals over $1 billion each year, with the most damage including mold, sewage contamination, damaged gas lines, home structural issues and in some cases, sinkholes. Flooding may contaminate drinking water. There are three ways to purify water.
Fires: Any season
Fire is fast and deadly, emitting smoke and gases that can cause a person to become unconscious within minutes. It is the most likely disaster that families will experience. More than 1 million fires are reported annually, resulting in over $14.8 billion in property damage. Household fires cause nearly 3,000 deaths and more than 12,000 injuries nationwide each year. Wildfires also pose an issue to homes when hot temperatures are coupled with low rainfall and outdoor fires.
Tornadoes: March - July or in association with hurricane season
A tornado is a violently rotating column of air extending from a thunderstorm, tropical storm or hurricane to the ground that may contain rotating winds of up to 250 miles per hour. Tornadoes are nature’s most violent storms. In Georgia, they are the number one weather-related killer. They can develop without warning and oftentimes can be hidden by trees or rain. Tornadoes can cause uprooting or destruction of homes, especially to roofs, glass and siding.
Tropical Storms/Hurricanes: June – November
Tropical storms are formed from simple complexes of thunderstorms. Hurricanes are tropical storms with winds that exceed 74 mph. Tropical storms may only grow to hurricane strength with cooperation from both the ocean and the atmosphere. As a coastal state, Georgia is at risk for hurricanes that form in the southern Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. Hurricanes can cause substantial damage hundreds of miles inland, spawning tornadoes and leading to flooding. Common types of damage include roof damage, water damage, collapse or loss of add-on structures, window/door damage and/or structural damage. After a storm, your home may be unsafe to enter, and you may need to consult an expert such as a city or county inspector, before reentering your home.
Power Outages: Any season
Everyone experiences power interruptions from time to time. Unfortunately, many of these outages come at times of weather extremes or accompany various disasters. When the power is out, safety becomes a major concern.
Snow, Ice, and Cold Temperatures: January – March
Southern states like Georgia, normally experience relatively mild winters, but can be hit with a major snowstorm, ice or severe cold. This can result in cars and trucks sliding on icy roads or heating emergencies caused by power outages, or lack of adequate home insulation.
Widespread Infectious Disease: Any season
Infectious diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. Infectious diseases can cause many different symptoms. Some are mild, while others can be life-threatening. There are treatments for some infectious diseases, but for others, such as some viruses, you can only treat your symptoms. The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic illustrated the need to plan for this type of emergency.
Earthquakes: Any season
Approximately 15 percent of the world’s earthquakes are scattered over areas that lack clearly defined active faults, like Georgia. Although earthquakes in Georgia are comparatively rare, an earthquake can cause significant damage. Georgia’s northwest counties, South Carolina border counties, and central and west-central Georgia counties are most at risk.
Other Hazards: Any season
As many as 500,000 products pose physical or health hazards and can be defined as hazardous materials. Accidents involving toxic substances have occurred in communities across the country. Nuclear power accidents are rare, but not impossible and Georgia has two nuclear plants.
Emergency Alert System
What are the emergency systems and alerts in your community?
An important part of preparation is to learn what emergency resources and alerts are available in your community.
- Learn the warning signals. Usually, a tone will come over your radio, television or mobile phone followed by an emergency alert and instructions. Always keep the radio or television on during an emergency. There are also smart device Apps you can download or set-up that transmit the emergency alerts.
- A NOAA certified weather radio is recommended.
- Does your community have a siren? If so, you should be familiar with the sound and what emergencies it is used for.
- Does your county have an opt-in alert system? If so, be sure you sign up for alerts via email, phone and/or text. To find out if your county has an alert system, call your county’s emergency management department, or check on your county’s website.
- Learn which radio and/or television stations provide emergency information for your area and opt-in.
Place of Work/Business Emergency Plans
Find out what plans are in place at your place of work/business.
Schools and Early Child Care (ECE) Emergency Plans
Find out what plans are in place for your children’s school or ECE provider, and other places you or your household frequently visit.
Find out how to help elderly or disabled persons. This may include contacting the local Division of Aging Services.
What type of animal care is available? Are there services for both pets and farm animals?
Developing an Emergency Plan
Meet with all the people in your household and discuss why you need to prepare for disaster. Plan to share responsibilities and work together as a team. Discuss the types of disasters that are most likely to happen and explain what to do in each case.
Things to remember:
- Ask an out-of-area friend or relative to be your “household contact.” It’s often easier to call long distances following a disaster. Contact:_________________________________________
- Pick two places to meet:
- Outside, near your home, for emergency such as fires.
- Outside, away from the neighborhood in case you cannot return home.
- Everyone in the household must know the home address and primary and secondary phone numbers, as well as the out of area/town household contact.
- Home Address:__________________________________________________________________
- Primary Phone Number:________________________________________________________
- Secondary Phone Number:_____________________________________________________
- Out of Area/Town Contact Name and Number:________________________________
- Consider establishing one or more “safe rooms” in your home to give you the most protection against injury during certain emergencies. Learn more about safe rooms on the FEMA website (https://tinyurl.com/3mja54mz)
- Add emergency telephone numbers to mobile phones, along with posting the numbers in a visible location inside your home, such as on the refrigerator.
- Sample emergency plans are available from Ready.gov (https://www.ready.gov/plan).
To reduce the impacts of emergency situations, it is important that everyone in the household is prepared in advance. Below are some tips to prepare members of your household for emergency situations.
- Teach children how and when to call 911 or your local emergency medical services number for help.
- Have household members take first aid and CPR classes.
- Check with your insurance provider to make sure you have adequate coverage.
- Determine the best escape routes from your home. Find two ways out of each room.
- Find safe spots in your home for each type of disaster.
- Conduct fire and emergency evacuation drills.
- Date of last drill:______________________________________________________________
- Date of next drill:_____________________________________________________________
- Ensure all household members know how and when to turn off the water, gas and electricity at the main switches.
- Install an ABC type fire extinguisher in your home, teach each household member to use it, and show them where it is kept. Be sure to check the expiration date quarterly.
- ABC Fire Extinguishers use monoammonium phosphate, a dry chemical with the ability to quickly put out many different types of fires by smothering the flames. This pale, yellow powder can put out all three classes of fire:
- Class A is for trash, wood, and paper.
- Class B is for liquids and gases.
- Class C is for energized electrical sources.
- Test and recharge your fire extinguisher(s) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
- Date inspected:______________________________________________________________
- Next inspection date:________________________________________________________
- Install smoke detectors and carbon monoxide alarms on each level of your home, especially near bedrooms.
- Test your smoke detectors monthly. Change the batteries every six months and clean the dust from the detector each time you change batteries.
- Date of Last Battery Change:________________________________________________
- Next Battery Change Due:___________________________________________________
- Review your plans every six months so everyone remembers what to do.
- Next Review: ________________________________________________________________
- Obtain an emergency generator to provide temporary electric power for any critical needs.
- Stock emergency supplies and assemble an emergency supply kit (See later section).
- Replace stored water and food every six months.
- Date of Last Rotation:_______________________________________________________
- Date of Next Rotation:______________________________________________________
- TIP: When you set your clocks in the fall and the spring, also replace your stored water and food, change your smoke detector batteries, and do other things necessary to maintain your plan.
The response phase occurs in the aftermath of a disaster when attention is focused on personal safety and wellbeing. Being well prepared will help in the responses. Keep in mind that homes can be very dangerous and deadly after a disaster. Do not enter your home if you are unsure of its safety. Consult with an expert, such as a city or county inspector to determine if re-entry is possible.
- Implementing emergency plan
- Conducting search and rescue
- Assessing damages
- Taking photos for insurance purposes, if possible
- Food safety
- Drying it out quickly
During the recovery phase, the focus is on cleanup and restoration.
- Preventing stress from excessive financial burdens
- Reducing vulnerability to future disasters
- Rebuilding damaged structures
- Before beginning the cleanup process, contact your homeowner’s insurance to seek advice on proceeding to demolition and/or repair of your home.
- Consider hiring a professional contractor or expert volunteer agency. Choose a company or agency licensed, qualified, and certified for demolition, removal and repair of damaged building materials, equipment, and structure.
Safe Cleanup Practices
- Some building materials may contain asbestos and/or lead paint and pipes. Items with these materials in them often need to be removed by certified workers.
- Mold Cleanup:
- Young children, older adults, people with asthma or chemical sensitivities, or people who have colds or the flu should never attempt to remove mold, even with proper personal protection equipment (PPE).
- If you are unable to hire a trained professional to remove mold in your water-damaged home, follow these 10 steps to complete the job as safely and successfully as possible.
- Speed-dry wet materials, especially wood structural members such as columns, beams, studs, and joists.
- Wear protective gear.
- Isolate the work area and ventilate outdoors.
- Remove moldy porous materials.
- Clean and disinfect.
- Apply borate treatment to undamaged wood.
- Ventilate after cleaning.
- Continue to look for signs of dampness and new mold growth.
- Don't continue with restoration and repair until all materials have dried completely.
- Restore with flood-resistant materials.
Rebuild a Healthy Home
- Resources and App from HUD to clean up after a disaster and rebuild your home. (https://tinyurl.com/yen4ru6y)
In an emergency you won’t have time to grab the insurance papers and household records that you will need afterwards, so it is helpful to plan ahead. The FEMA Emergency Financial First Aid Kit provides checklists and forms to help you make sure your financial records are accessible in an emergency.
Preparing for an Emergency
Always make sure you have cash in a safe location in your home. Important documents should be stored in one location and updated regularly. Memorable times for updating documents are when your taxes are due, daylight savings time, or at the beginning of the new year. Be sure to update when you have life changing events, when you add or delete accounts, and when you move.
Where to store items
- Keep hard copies in a fire and waterproof safe or box, or off-site in a safe deposit box. If you store papers in a safe deposit box, make sure you know who can access it and when.
- Store electronic documents on a password protected flash drive, external hard drive, or a secure online site. For important financial documents it is a good practice to have two copies.
- Keep one in a waterproof bag in your emergency supply kit. Store the other copy outside your home. This could be in a secure location in your office, or with a trusted person. You can also store documents in a web-based cloud.
What to keep
- Financial and Insurance Records
- Deeds, titles, and contracts
- If you bank online and pay bills electronically, it’s a good idea to print statements periodically.
- Review all insurance policies to make sure you have adequate insurance for your house or rental property, including flood protection if needed.
- Check your auto policy to make certain you have adequate, and not too much coverage.
- Safeguard your accounts by freezing your credit at each of the credit bureaus. Learn more on the Federal Trade Commission website.
- Family Records and Identification
- Passports and social security cards (color copies)
- Birth, marriage, and death certificates
- Health and immunization records
- Provide your hospital and primary care doctor with a copy of your living will and advanced directives.
- Estate Documents
- Will, power of attorney and advanced directives
- Give a trusted person a paper copy of your will and other estate documents. This may be a lawyer, financial advisor, friend, or family member.
- Property Inventory
- Create an inventory of your household possessions and valuables. Take photos or videos. Keep an electronic or paper copy of the inventory list in a safe location. Two locations is even better.
In the Event of an Emergency
- Take your waterproof packet of important household and personal documents.
- Be sure to take a mobile phone. One with a camera is helpful.
- Take your wallet or purse with a picture ID, credit cards, insurance cards, written list of emergency contacts and important financial numbers, and cash.
- Charger for mobile phone.
After an Emergency
- Secure personal belongings.
- Take photos and/or videos to document damage and loss.
- Notify insurance companies – homeowners, renters, flood, automobile, and personal disability.
- Do not sign anything from an insurance company until all damages to your property are evident.
- Contact your employer.
- Cancel regular services that you won’t be using while your property is being repaired including services like cable or satellite television and internet.
- Notify your mortgage company.
- If you will be relocated while your home is being repaired, notify the post office with your change of address during this time.
- If you will have problems paying regular bills during this time, contact your creditors and ask if you can temporarily modify payments.
- If you have a financial planner, contact them for assistance in managing your financial resources.
- If there is a federal disaster declaration, you can file for funds to help in recovery. Contact FEMA or Georgia Emergency Management Agency (GEMA) for more information on documenting and filing claims.
- For assistance and resources contact local agencies such as the American Red Cross, but be careful to avoid predatory agencies and people.
Before, during and after an emergency, you need to take steps to protect your home and family. Natural disasters often cause a loss of power. You should plan ahead and learn where the shutoffs are for the utilities in your home.
- Locate your gas meter shutoff valve, learn how to turn the gas off, and what tools you need to turn it off in an emergency. If the shutoff valve is not working, call your utility company for an operational check of the valve.
- If you smell natural gas, get everyone out and away from the home immediately. Do not use matches, lighter, open flame appliances or operate electrical switches. Sparks could ignite gas causing an explosion. If possible, shut off the gas at the outside main valve and contact the gas company from outside your home. Do not reenter your home until the gas company has assessed the situation.
- Seek the assistance for a plumber to repair gas pipe damage.
Electrical sparks can cause a fire or explosion, and in some situations, it is important to turn the electricity off.
- Locate your main electrical switch or fuse panel and learn how to turn off electrical power to specific locations and to the entire house.
- If you are using an emergency generator as a backup power supply, always run fueled (i.e., gas, propane, kerosene) and remember:
- Read the owner’s manual and follow all instructions, making sure it is properly grounded.
- Keep the generator outside your home and garage. It should be 15-20 feet away from home windows and doors. This will provide the ventilation needed for it to operate efficiently and keep carbon monoxide (CO) emitted from it out of your home. CO is colorless odorless gas that can cause death.
- Connect the portable generator directly to appliances to be powered using approved and properly sized power cords--not to existing house wiring.
- Operate portable generators outside, away from flammable materials, children, and pets.
- Never add fuel when a generator is running, or when it is hot. Turn it off and let it cool before adding fuel.
safely using a generator
Make sure your home has working carbon monoxide alarms and smoke detectors.
Generators that are connected to a utility company’s electrical system must be inspected by the utility and the state electrical inspector. Failure to have the system inspected may result in death or injury to utility crews trying to restore service to the area.
For more information on safely using a generator:
- Energy.gov (https://tinyurl.com/23wjk24h)
- Consumer Reports (https://tinyurl.com/uw5mb93h)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (https://www.cdc.gov/disasters/cofacts.html)
- Label the water shut off valve and learn how to turn off the water supply to your home. It is usually located near the street or where the public water line enters your property. You often need a special tool to turn the valve. Make sure it can be located quickly.
- If the shut-off valve is located outside of the home in a buried housing, keep all debris out of the housing and keep the housing covered.
- Ensure that the valve can be fully turned off. If the water valve requires the use of a special tool, make sure the tool is readily available. The valve should be turned off and on several times a year to verify proper operation.
- Shut off the main valve to prevent contamination of the water supply in your water heater and plumbing.
- Your sewer system could be damaged in a disaster such as an earthquake or a flood. Make sure the system is functioning as designed before using it to prevent contamination of your home and possibly the drinking water supply.
- Have a bucket or portable toilet available for disposing of human waste. Plastic bags placed in the toilet bowl will also work.
The following sections give you specific instructions on what to do for power outages, fires, floods, earthquakes, winter storms, hazardous material spills, and other emergencies.
It is important to keep the telephone number for reporting outages to your utility company on your mobile phone. Also, it is helpful to download the App for your utility provider, so you can easily report outages.
Preparing for Power Outages
- Talk to your medical provider about a power outage plan for medical devices powered by electricity and refrigerated medicines. Find out how long your medications can be stored at higher temperatures. Get specific guidance for any medications that are critical for life.
- Register life-sustaining equipment with your utility provider.
- If you own an electric garage door opener, learn how to open the door without power.
- Prepare a power outage kit. For short duration outages consider having glow light sticks, flashlights, battery powered radio, extra batteries, and a wind-up clock on hand.
- Make sure you have an alternate heat source and a supply of fuel.
- Install carbon monoxide detectors with battery backup in central locations on every level of your home.
- Keep a thermometer in the refrigerator and freezer.
In the Event of a Power Outage
- Operate portable generators, outside, away from flammable materials, children, and pets.
- Connect lights and appliances directly to a generator, not to an existing electrical system.
- Disconnect appliances and electronics to avoid damage from electrical surges.
- Leave one light switch in the on position to alert you when service is restored.
- When using kerosene heaters, gas lanterns or stoves inside the house, maintain ventilation to avoid a build-up of toxic fumes. Never use charcoal or gas barbeques inside; they produce carbon monoxide. A natural or LP gas heater (e.g. gas logs, etc.) — not butane — is a good source of auxiliary heat during power outages. Neither requires electricity, but care must be taken to make sure they are properly installed.
- Conserve water, especially if you are on a well.
- Keep doors, windows and draperies closed to retain heat in your home.
- Keep refrigerator and freezer doors closed. If the door remains closed, a fully loaded freezer can keep foods frozen for two days. To extend the life of your freezer during a power outage, please see the UGA Extension publication When your freezer stops. (https://tinyurl.com/afwywuz2).
- If the temperature in the refrigerator is 40 degrees or higher then you should dispose of the food. For guidance on when to discard food after a power outage, refer to the USDA food safety guide. (https://tinyurl.com/5455rdw7).
- Be extremely careful of fire hazards caused by candles or other flammable light sources.
Preventing Fires—Safety Tips
- Install smoke detectors, according to the manufacturer’s directions, on every level of your house: outside bedrooms on the ceiling or high on the wall, at the top of open stairways, or at the bottom of enclosed stairs and near (but not in) the kitchen.
- Clean smoke detectors once a month and change batteries at two specified times each year, when you set your clocks for Daylight Savings or Standard Time.
- In your Emergency Plan, be sure to include:
- Two escape routes out of each room.
- A meeting place outside your home for the household to meet after escaping from a fire. ONCE OUT, STAY OUT!
- Make sure that windows are not nailed or painted shut and any security grating on windows has a fire safety opening feature.
- Eliminate clutter so escape routes are clear.
- Store flammable and combustible liquids in approved containers. Keep containers in the garage or an outside storage area.
- Inspect electrical appliances and extension cords for bare wires, worn plugs and loose connections annually.
- Clean and inspect primary and secondary heating equipment annually.
- Learn how to turn off the gas and electricity in an emergency.
- Install A-B-C type fire extinguishers: teach household members how to use them.
- Inspect or service your fire extinguishers annually.
- Sleep with your door closed.
In the Event of a Fire
- For small, non-grease fires use water or a fire extinguisher. Never use water on an electrical fire.
- Smother oil and grease fires in the kitchen with baking soda or salt; or, put a lid over the flame if it is burning in a pan.
- If the smoke alarm sounds:
- Stay low to the floor.
- Feel the bottom of the door and knob with the palm of your hand before opening it. If the door is hot, escape through the window. If the door is not hot and this route is your only means of escape, crawl below the level of the smoke and use the first available exit door to escape.
- If you cannot escape, leave the door closed, stay where you are and hang a white or light-colored sheet outside the window.
After A Fire
- Ask the fire department for assistance in retrieving important documents.
- Keep records of all clean-up and repair costs.
- Secure personal belongings.
Preparing before Flooding
- Find out if you live in a flood-prone area and be aware of streams, drainage channels and areas known to flood suddenly.
- Know the terms Flood Watch, Flash Flood Watch, Flood Warning, Flash Flood Warning, and Urban and Small Stream Warning.
- Plan for evacuation.
- Take steps to flood-proof your home. Call your local building department or emergency management office for information.
- Keep all insurance policies and your household inventory in a safe place.
- If instructed, turn off utilities at the main switches or valves.
- Fill the bathtub with water in case water becomes contaminated or services are cut off. Sterilize the bathtub prior to using it. Use a bleach and water solution, following the instructions on the container.
- When deep flooding is likely, permit the floodwaters to flow freely into your basement to avoid structural damage to the foundation and the house.
In the Event of a Flood
- Follow alerts and evacuate if instructed to do so. Take your emergency kit with you.
- Do not return to the area until permitted.
After a Flood
- Stay away from floodwaters. Stay away from moving water. Moving water six inches deep can sweep you off your feet.
- Be aware of areas where flood waters have receded and may have damaged road surfaces.
- Stay away from and report downed power lines.
- Consider health and safety needs. Wash your hands frequently with soap and clean water if you encounter floodwaters.
- Throw away any food that has come in contact with floodwaters.
- Keep records of all cleanup and repair costs.
- Take photos of or video recordings of your belongings and your home.
- Don’t throw away damaged goods until an official inventory has been taken.
- Photo identification may be required to enter the flooded area.
Tornadoes and Hurricanes
Preparing before Tornadoes and Hurricanes
- Identify a safe place to take shelter; consider building a “safe room,” such as the basement or an interior room without windows. Tips on “safe room” construction can be found on the FEMA website. (https://www.fema.gov/emergency-managers/risk-management/safe-rooms).
- Conduct frequent drills each season, to include going to the safe place you identified.
- Review your household communications plan in case a storm strikes while you are away.
- Have a NOAA Weather Radio with a warning alarm tone and battery backup to receive watches and warnings or enable emergency alerts on cellular devices.
- Check for weather bulletins online: www.nws.noaa.gov or www.weather.gov
- If severe weather threatens, check on people who are elderly, very young, or physically or mentally disabled.
- Inventory and refresh, as necessary, your emergency supply kit.
In the Event of a Tornado or Hurricane
- In a home or building, move to a pre-designated shelter, such as a basement, a small interior room with no windows (for example, an interior hall or bathroom), a safe room or under a sturdy piece of furniture. Put as many walls as possible between you and the outside.
- Stay away from windows; if a windowless interior room is unavailable, go to the center of the room (stay away from corners because they attract debris).
- When in a vehicle, get outside and when outside with no secure structure available, lie flat in a nearby ditch or depression and cover your head and neck with your arms. Be aware of the potential for flooding. Do not get under an overpass or bridge. In a tornado, you are safer in a low, flat location. In a hurricane, find the best built structure you can.
- Be aware of flying debris—this causes most fatalities and injuries in major storms. Use your arms to protect your head and neck.
- Mobile homes, even if tied down, offer little protection from tornadoes. You should leave a mobile home and go to the lowest floor of a sturdy nearby building or a storm shelter.
- Avoid places with wide-span roofs such as auditoriums, cafeterias, large hallways, or shopping malls.
After a Tornado or Hurricane
- After being assured that the storm danger has passed, exit damaged premises.
- If light is needed use a flashlight—not a candle, cigarette lighter, or any open flame.
- Stay out of damaged buildings and away from downed power lines and from puddles with power lines in them. Return home when authorities say it’s safe.
- Help injured or trapped persons; give first aid when appropriate but don’t try to move the seriously injured unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. Call for help immediately.
- Clean up spilled medicines, bleaches, gasoline or other flammable liquids immediately. If you smell gas or chemical fumes, open a window and quickly leave the building. If you smell gas, turn it off at the outside main valve, if you can, and call the gas company from a phone outside the building or in another building. If you turn off the gas, a professional must turn it back on.
- If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires, or if you smell hot insulation, turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit breaker. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker, call an electrician for advice.
- If you suspect sewage lines are damaged, avoid using the toilets and call a plumber. If water pipes are damaged, contact the water company and avoid using water from the tap. Melt ice cubes or use bottled water for safe drinking.
- Take pictures of the damage—both the house and contents—for insurance purposes.
- Install Temporary Weather Barriers: If the roof, exterior walls, windows or doors are damaged or missing, cover with temporary weather barriers or tarps as soon as possible to prevent further damage from water entry. If any siding, masonry, or panels are missing, cover the damaged section with a tear-resistant weather barrier (housewrap). Wrap it across the damaged wall in layers from the bottom to the top of the wall so the layers overlap shingle-fashion. Secure the weather barrier with nails and seal seams and edges with a compatible construction tape or caulking.
Planning Ahead for Earthquakes
- Securely fasten down water heaters and gas appliances.
- Repair defective electrical wiring, leaky gas and inflexible utility connections.
- Place large or heavy objects on lower shelves. Fasten shelves to walls. Brace high and top-heavy objects.
- Store bottle foods, glass, china and other breakables on low shelves or in cabinets that can fasten shut.
- Anchor overhead lighting fixtures.
- Be sure your house is firmly anchored to its foundation.
- Know where and how to shut off all utilities.
- Identify danger zones in each room.
In the Event of an Earthquake
- If indoors — take cover under sturdy furniture or against an inside wall and hold on. Drop, Cover & Hold. Stay away from the kitchen! It is one of the most dangerous rooms in your house because of the appliances and chemicals.
- If outdoors — stay there. Move away from buildings, streetlights, and utility wires.
- In a high-rise building — take cover under sturdy furniture away from windows and outside walls. Stay in the building on the same floor. An evacuation may not be necessary. Wait for instructions from safety personnel. Do not use elevators.
- In a vehicle — stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in the vehicle. Avoid stopping near or under buildings, trees, overpasses, or utility wires.
After an Earthquake
- Be prepared for smaller earthquakes, or aftershocks, that follow the main earthquake.
- Stay away from damaged areas unless your assistance has been specifically requested by proper
- Check your home for structural damage. Many buildings will suffer some structural damage. Never enter a building that might have structural damage. Below are types of structural damage to your property.
- Roof sagging as a result of damaged rafters, ceiling joists, or damage to load-bearing walls.
- Walls that are not vertical or straight.
- Door sticking, indicating that the house shifted.
- Foundation problems, indicated by cracks, or separation from the structure.
- Floors that are sagging, buckled or broken floor joists.
- Chimney cracks
- If you smell gas or hear a hissing or blowing sound — open a window and leave the building. Shut off the main gas valve outside.
- If there is electrical damage — switch off the power at the main control panel.
- If water pipes are damaged — shut off the water supply at the main valve. Do not flush toilets until you know that sewage lines are intact.
- Clean up spilled medicines, bleaches, gasoline and other flammable liquids.
- Visually inspect utility lines and appliances for damage.
- Open cabinets cautiously. Beware of objects that can fall off shelves.
- Listen to news reports for the latest emergency information.
- Stay away from damaged areas unless your assistance has been specifically requested by proper authorities.
- Be aware of possible high water due to dam failures. Go to high ground and remain there until you are told it is safe to return to home.
Winter Storms and Extreme Cold
- Know the terminology used by weather forecasters.
- Consider purchasing a battery-powered NOAA weather radio and stock extra batteries.
- Keep rock salt to melt ice on walkways and sand to improve traction.
- Make sure you have sufficient heating fuel.
- Make sure you have an alternate heat source and a supply of fuel.
- Install storm windows or cover windows with plastic.
- Insulate walls and attics.
- Caulk and weather-strip doors and windows.
- Keep your car “winterized” with antifreeze.
During Extreme Cold
- Listen to the radio or television for weather reports and emergency information.
- Wear several layers of loose-fitting, lightweight, warm clothing rather than one layer of heavy clothing.
- Wear mittens instead of gloves.
- Wear a hat — most body heat is lost through the top of the head.
- Avoid overexertion.
- Watch for signs and symptoms of frostbite. If symptoms are detected, get medical help immediately.
- Watch for signs and symptoms of hypothermia (i.e., shivering, exhaustion, confusion, memory loss, slurred speech, fumbling hands and drowsiness). If symptoms are detected, get medical help immediately.
- Conserve fuel by keeping your house cooler than normal.
- Shelter pets inside a protected structure.
After Extreme Cold
- Refuel kerosene heaters outside and keep them at least three (3) feet from flammable objects.
- If you must travel, consider using public transportation.
Caught in Your Car During a Blizzard
- Pull off the highway and set your hazard lights to flash.
- Hang a distress flag from the radio antenna.
- Run the engine and heater about ten minutes each hour to keep warm. While the engine is running, slightly open a window and keep the exhaust pipe free of snow.
- Exercise lightly to maintain body heat. Huddle with passengers to stay warm.
- Take turns sleeping.
- Be careful not to run the car battery down.
- If stranded in a remote rural or wilderness area, spread a large cloth over the snow to attract the attention of rescue personnel.
- Once the blizzard passes, you may need to leave the car and proceed on foot.
Hazardous Material Spills and Nuclear Power Accidents
Planning Ahead of Hazardous Situation
- Ask your Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) about where reportable quantities of extremely hazardous substances are stored and where they are used and about community plans for responding to hazardous material accidents, including nuclear power plant accidents. (https://epd.georgia.gov/emergency-response)
- Have materials available to seal windows and doors in your residence to reduce the risk of toxic vapors entering your home. You should also turn off attic fans and ventilation systems. (More on “shelter-in-place” is covered later in the handbook.)
During Hazardous Situations
- Stay away from the incident site to minimize the risk of contamination and keep children and pets away from the site.
- If caught outside — stay upstream, uphill, or upwind of chemical spills. Try to go one-half mile (10 city blocks) from the danger area.
- If you are in a car — close windows and shut off ventilation.
- Evacuate if told to do so, especially in nuclear power accidents,
- If an explosion is imminent — close drapes, curtains and shades.
- If you suspect gas or vapor contamination — take shallow breaths through a cloth or towel.
- Avoid contact with any spilled liquid materials, airborne mist or condensed solid chemical deposits.
After Hazardous Situations
- Return home only when directed to do so and upon returning home, ventilate the house.
- If medical help is not immediately available and you suspect contamination on your body or clothing, remove all clothing and shower thoroughly. Place exposed clothing and shoes in tightly sealed containers without allowing them to contact other materials: get directions for proper disposal.
- Get direction from local authorities on how to clean up your land and property. You may need to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) to do the cleaning. In most cases, it is best to hire a professional.
Public Health Emergencies
There are many different types of health emergencies, such as infectious disease outbreaks, like COVID-19, or foodborne illness outbreaks.
Planning Ahead for Health Emergencies
- Stay informed and know where to find trustworthy resources about health issues. Below are some suggested resources.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides information and resources on a variety of concerns, including COVID-19 (https://emergency.cdc.gov/).
- The National Institutes of Health (https://www.nia.nih.gov/health/online-health-information-it-reliable).
- Be prepared by keeping a supply of face masks, hand sanitizer, and disinfectants.
- A foodborne illness outbreak is when two or more people become ill from the same contaminated food or drink. Reduce your risk of becoming ill by following safe practices when buying, storing and serving food. Learn more at https://www.fda.gov/food/recalls-outbreaks-emergencies/outbreaks-foodborne-illness
During Health Emergencies
- Health emergencies can be scary for everyone, especially children. In an emergency, become informed, remain calm, and explain what is happening to young children in simple, easy to understand terms.
After Health Emergencies
- Stay informed about the situation but take breaks from listening to news stories.
- Acknowledge that you and your family may be dealing with stress. Take care of your mental and physical health.
- Help others to cope with the situation.
- Seek professional help if needed. (https://tinyurl.com/wvwm8v99)
In addition to having a bad odor and taste, contaminated water can contain agents that cause diseases such as dysentery, typhoid and hepatitis. You should purify all water of uncertain purity before using it for drinking, food preparation or hygiene. There are many ways to purify water. None is perfect. Often the best solution is a combination of methods.
- Boiling is the safest method of purifying water. Bring water to a rolling boil for 3-5 minutes, keeping in mind that some water will evaporate. Let the water cool before drinking.
- Boiled water will taste better if you put oxygen back into it by pouring the water back and forth between two clean containers. This will also improve the taste of stored water.
- You can use household liquid bleach to kill microorganisms. Use only regular household liquid bleach that contains 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite. Do not use scented bleaches, color-safe bleaches or bleaches with added cleaners.
- Add 16 drops of bleach per gallon of water stir and let stand for 30 minutes. If the water does not have a slight bleach odor, repeat the dosage and let it stand for another 15 minutes.
- The only agent used to purify water should be household liquid bleach. Other chemicals, such as iodine or water treatment products sold in camping or surplus stores that do not contain 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite as the only active ingredient, are not recommended and should not be used.
Note: While the two methods described above will kill most microbes in water, they do not remove other contaminants, such as heavy metals, salts, and most chemicals. Before purifying, let any suspended particles settle to the bottom, or strain them through layers of paper towel or clean cloth. The third purification method removes many dangerous heavy metals.
- Distillation involves boiling water and then collecting the vapor that condenses back to water. The condensed vapor will not include salt and other impurities. To distill, fill a pot halfway with water. Tie a cup to the handle on the pot’s lid so that the cup will hang right-side-up when the lid is upside-down (make sure the cup is not dangling into the water) and boil the water for 20 minutes. The water that drips from the lid into the cup is distilled.
Shelter-in-place means selecting a small, interior room, with no or few windows, and taking refuge there. In the event of a nuclear, biological or chemical event or accident, there may not be sufficient time, or it may not be advisable to evacuate affected areas. Shelter-in-place plans should be used under these circumstances. This is a precaution aimed to keep you safe while remaining indoors, which is not the same thing as going to a shelter in
case of a storm.
In case of a public health emergency, such as a pandemic, a shelter-in-place order may be given to help reduce transmission of a contagious disease.
As with any emergency procedure, pre-planning is essential and requires some material purchases, such as the following.
- First aid kit.
- Flashlight, battery-powered radio, and extra batteries for both.
- A working telephone with a charger.
- Food and bottled water. Store 1 gallon of water per person in plastic bottles as well as ready-to-eat foods that will be kept without refrigeration in the shelter-in-place room.
- Duct tape and scissors.
- Towels and plastic sheeting. You may wish to cut your plastic sheeting to fit your windows and doors before any emergency occurs. Pre-Cut plastic sheeting 2 inches wider than the dimensions of each window, vent, door, electrical outlets, phone jacks or other opening that leads to the outside and mark each sheet for quick installation.
NOTE :The "Required Materials" are minimums and should be expanded based on your plan.
- Locate interior, second story or higher room(s) with as few vents, windows, and doors as possible in the event of a chemical or biological emergency. Do not use basements or other underground enclosures as many chemical agents are heavier than air and settle into lower levels. This guideline is different from sheltering-in-place during a tornado, other severe weather, nuclear or radiological events, when the shelter should be low in the home.
- Store materials in each safe room in an unlocked closet(s).
- Install weather stripping around door(s) and window(s) where possible.
What to Do When a Warning is Issued
- When a warning is issued, act quickly and always follow the instructions of your local emergency coordinators as they will have specific instructions pertaining to the situation. General guidelines on what to do include, but are not limited to:
- Go inside as quickly as possible. Bring your pets indoors.
- Go to the designated shelter-in-place room and shut the door.
- Turn on the radio. Keep a telephone close at hand, but don’t use it unless there is an emergency.
- If there’s a nuclear or chemical hazard, shut and lock all outside doors and windows to make a better seal. Turn off the air conditioner or heater. Turn off all fans, too. Close the fireplace damper and any other place that air can come in from outside. Tape plastic over any windows in the room. Use duct tape around the windows and doors and make an unbroken seal. Use the tape over any vents into the room and seal any electrical outlets or other openings.
- If your children are at school, they will be sheltered there. Unless you are instructed to do so, do not try to get to the school to bring your children home. Transporting them from the school will put them, and you, at increased risk.
- You should not try to shelter-in-place in a vehicle unless you have no other choice. Vehicles are not airtight enough to give you adequate protection from many types of airborne hazards.
- If you are close to home or other available shelter, go there immediately.
- If there is no available shelter:
- Pull off the road in a safe, shady/sheltered spot, turn off the engine and close windows and vents.
- Listen regularly to the radio for advice and instructions.
- Stay put until you hear it is safe to get back on the road. Then follow the traffic directions of public safety officials, as some roads may be closed, or traffic detoured.
- Listen to the radio for an announcement indicating that it is safe to leave the shelter.
- When you leave the shelter, follow instructions from local emergency coordinators to avoid any contaminants outside.
- Carefully remove and dispose of the tape, bath towels and plastic sheeting, exercising care when removing and disposing of these materials in order to minimize contamination of your safe room(s) from residual agents.
- When possible, hire a disaster cleanup company or other professional decontamination service to ensure the premises are safe for occupancy.
- Choose a company or agency licensed, qualified, and certified for demolition, removal, and repair of damaged building materials, equipment, and structure. If the home is covered by homeowner’s insurance, it is important to contact the company and seek advice on proceeding to demolition and repair of the home.
- If your family is unable to hire a trained professional to remove mold in your water-damaged home, follow the guidance in the CDC guide for homeowners and renters (https://tinyurl.com/kj5f2t3m).
- Open doors and windows.
- Turn on your heating/cooling system to ventilate the structure.
- Be cautious about letting pets out. Storm damage may cause pets to become disoriented or pose life-threatening risks
To protect the public from exposure to people who have or may have a contagious disease, the government (federal, state, local or tribal law) may issue an isolation and/or quarantine order. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses the following definitions of isolation and quarantine:
Isolation separates sick people with a quarantinable communicable disease from people who are not sick.
Quarantine separates and restricts the movement of people who were exposed to a contagious disease to see if they become sick.
- Authorities may decide to evacuate an area for your protection. It is important to stay calm, listen carefully and follow all instructions.
- If you are told to evacuate, listen to your radio to make sure the evacuation order applies to you and to understand how much time you have to pack essentials.
- If you are told to evacuate before leaving your home do the following:
- Close and lock windows.
- Turn off furnace, air conditioner, and air exchange units.
- Close vents.
- Turn off/unplug appliances, except for the refrigerator and freezer which should be left on.
- Take your pets and their food with you.
- Turn off the lights and lock the doors.
- Move quickly and calmly.
- Check on neighbors to make sure they have been notified and offer help to those with disabilities or other special needs.
- Take only one car and carpool to the evacuation site.
- Close your car windows and air vents. Turn off the heater or air conditioner.
- Do not take shortcuts because a shortcut may put you in the path of danger. For your safety, follow the exact route you are told to take.
There are seven basic categories of essentials you should stock in your home in preparation for a disaster - water, food, first aid/medical supplies, clothing and bedding, emergency supplies, tools, special items, and household documents. Keep the items you will most likely need during an evacuation in an easy-to-carry waterproof container such as a large, covered trash container, plastic storage box, or waterproofed bag.
The following is not an exhaustive list. Tailor your kit to your household’s needs.
- Water at the top of the toilet tank can be sanitized with bleach and used as drinking or cooking water (see "Three Ways to Purify Water" above).
- Stored water in a water heater can be accessed by a spigot on the outside of the tank.
- One gallon of water per person per day (minimum 3-day supply). If you have pets, add one half to one gallon of water per pet per day.
- Household unscented chlorine bleach for cleaning food cans and sanitizing water.
- Medicine dropper (for sanitizing water).
- Water purifying agents.
- Store at least a three-day supply of non-perishable food for each person and pet in your household
- Select foods that require no refrigeration, cooking, or preparation
- Select food items that are compact and lightweight, rotate the food supplies every six months and be mindful of expiration dates.
- When shopping for emergency food, try to purchase a variety of foods from each of the food groups: proteins, fruits, vegetables, grains, and dairy products.
- Bean spreads/dips
- Beef, chicken or turkey jerky
- Canned beans (kidney, lima, black-eyed peas, lentils, etc.)
- Canned tuna, ham, salmon, sardines, chili, corned-beef hash
- Meat soups and chili
- Nut butter (almond, hazelnut, peanut, sunflower, etc.)
- Packaged nuts (unsalted, dry roasted, peanuts, walnuts, almonds, etc.)
- Powered egg products
- 100% fruit juice
- Canned fruit in their own juices
- Freeze-dried fruit (bananas, strawberries, peaches, etc.)
- Fruit cocktail
- Packaged, dried fruit (blueberries, apricots, cranberries, dates, raisins, etc.)
- Trail mix with fruit
- Unsweetened applesauce
- Canned vegetables (asparagus, carrots, corn, green beans, okra, mushrooms, peas, tomatoes, etc.)
- Canned vegetable soups
- Spaghetti sauce
- Bread or breadsticks (whole grain)
- Breakfast cereal (high-fiber, low-sugar options)
- Crackers (whole wheat or rye crisps)
- Energy bars
- Graham crackers
- Rice cakes
- Taco shells
- Tortilla wraps or chips
- Vanilla wafers
- Dairy Products:
- Cheese spread
- Nonfat or low-fat milk (powdered, canned, or shelf-stable)
- Nutritional drinks
- Shelf-stable puddings
- Vacuum-packed, shelf-stable cheeses
- Additional food-related supplies:
- Aluminum foil
- Baby bottles
- Coffee, tea, cocoa
- Cooking oil/spray
- Dish soap
- Disposable aluminum pans
- Disposable eating utensils
- Dried herbs and spices
- Food thermometer
- Grill or camping stove for outdoor cooking (including fuel or charcoal)
- Hand sanitizer
- Household, unscented chlorine bleach
- Infant formula/food
- Kitchen gloves
- Mess kits
- Non-electric can opener
- Paper bowls, plates, and towels
- Parchment paper
- Pet food
- Plastic wrap
- Reusable containers
- Trash bags
- Zip-type storage bags
First Aid/Medical Supplies
- Consider taking a first aid course at your local community center to familiarize yourself with first aid terms and procedures.
- Label individual bags to organize prescription medications for each family member. Also, have a list of each family member’s prescription medications and dosages.
- Assemble two first aid kits—one for your home and another for your vehicle.
- 2 and 3-inch sterile roller bandages (3 rolls each)
- 2-inch sterile gauze pads (8-12)
- 3-inch sterile gauze pads (8-12)
- Activated charcoal
- Alcohol prep pads
- Allergy medication (over the counter)
- Antibiotic ointment
- Anti-diarrhea medication
- Antiseptic spray
- Aspirin or non-aspirin pain reliever
- Assorted sizes of safety pins
- Bar of soap
- Burn Cream w/Lidocaine - Box of 25
- Burn Dressing - 4” x 4” (x2)
- Burn Spray - 2oz Pump
- Cleaning agent
- Cloth face coverings (for everyone ages 2 and above)
- Cold Pack - Small - Boxed (x2)
- Cold Pack 5” x 9” - Boxed
- Cold Relief Tablets - Box of 100
- Cold Spray - 4oz
- Cotton Tip 3” Applicator - 100ct
- CPR Mask/Breathing Barrier
- Disinfecting wipes
- Emetic (induce vomiting)
- Eye Pads (x4)
- Hand sanitizer
- Hydrocortisone Cream 1%
- Hypo-allergenic adhesive tape
- Latex and/or nitrile gloves
- Liquid Soap
- Moistened towelettes (8-10 packages)
- Non-breakable thermometer
- Prescription medications
- Safety razor blade
- Scissors and needle
- Splint - multi-purpose
- Sterile adhesive bandages in assorted sizes
- Tongue blades and wooden applicator sticks
- Triangular bandages (3)
- Tube of petroleum jelly or other lubricants
Clothing & Bedding
- Tip: Include at least one complete change of clothing and footwear per person.
- Bedding for pets
- Blankets or sleeping bags
- Extra clothing for family members (including diapers/wipes for infants)
- Hat and gloves
- Plastic tarpaulin (to keep bedding off the floor or ground)
- Polyester film or plastic sheet emergency blanket
- Mylar emergency blanket
- Rain gear (ponchos or jackets)
- Sturdy shoes or work boots
- Thermal underwear
Tools & Emergency Supplies
- Tip: Do not install batteries until they are needed.
- Battery operated weather radio with AM/FM
- Cash and change
- Cell phone charger
- Chainsaw for clearing tree limbs and fuel stored in a proper container
- Dust mask and work gloves
- Extra cell phone battery
- Fire extinguisher (small canister -ABC type)
- Flashlight and extra batteries
- Home Emergency Preparedness Plan
- Matches in a waterproof container
- Metal whistle with lanyard
- Needles, thread
- Utility knife
- Paper, pencils, and pens
- Personal hygiene items, including feminine supplies
- Plastic bucket with a tight lid
- Plastic garbage bags and ties
- Plastic sheeting
- Plastic storage containers
- Separate flashlight near each bed in your home
- Several safety light sticks (bend, snap, or shake type light sticks)
- Shut-off wrench for gas and water
- Signal flare
- Small shovel to dig an expedient latrine
- Soap and laundry detergent
- Toilet paper and towelettes
- Tube tent
- USB portable cell phone charger
- Utility knife
- Tip: When planning, keep in mind you pet(s) and household members with special needs such as infants, elderly, or disabled individuals.
- Contact lenses, and supplies if needed, as well as an extra pair of eyeglasses
- Denture needs
- Entertainment—games for children; books for adults.
- Insulin for diabetics in the household
- Kitty litter and/or puppy pads
- One size-appropriate pet carrier per pet (no cardboard carriers for cats)
- Pet collar with identifying tags and leash
Important Household & Personal Documents
- If resources are available, scan all important documents and store them on two password-protected USB drives. Keep one drive in the disaster supply kit in a waterproof bag and keep the other drive in a secure place outside of your home (e.g., with a trusted family member or in a personal, locked desk drawer at your workplace). If the resources are not available, keep these paper records in waterproof portable containers, such as plastic freezer or food storage bags.
- Insurance policies (home, auto, and health)
- Inventory of household goods—it’s helpful to have photos and/or videos of item
- Contracts, deeds, stocks and bonds, legal papers (e.g., will, power of attorney)
- Bank account and credit card account numbers and contact information
- Passports, social security cards & Driver’s licenses (color copies)
- Health and immunization records
- List of emergency contacts
- Family records like birth, marriage, and death certificates
Your primary emergency kit should be composed of items listed above that are appropriate for you and your family. Be sure to replace perishable items at least annually. Select a date and mark your calendar so you remember to do it,
In addition, keep a smaller “Grab-and-Go” kit in the trunk of your automobile. This kit should include the items listed below.
- Canned food and/or energy bars
- First aid kit
- Flashlight with extra batteries
- Safety light sticks
- Blankets or sleeping bag
- Jumper cables
- Trash bag
- Pencil, pen and paper
- Metal whistle with lanyard or string to hang around your neck
- List of emergency contacts with phone numbers
- Weather alert radio
- Emergency phone charger
- Extra cash and change (You may prefer to keep cash in the house so you can grab it and take it with you in the event of an emergency.)
American Red Cross (n.d.). Survival kit supplies. https://tinyurl.com/x9b9kwdw
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2020, February). Legal authorities for isolation and quarantine. https://tinyurl.com/pfv2t7z6
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015, June). Homeowner’s and Renter’s Guide to Mold Cleanup After Disasters. https://tinyurl.com/kj5f2t3m
Federal Emergency Management Association (2020, September). COVID-19 supplement for planning considerations: Evacuation and shelter-in-place. https://tinyurl.com/me6c627d.
Georgia Emergency Management and Homeland Security Agency. Ready Georgia. https://gema.georgia.gov/plan-prepare/ready-georgia
Georgia Forestry Commission. Wildfire Prevention. https://tinyurl.com/abnfnkpt
Kidde Fire Safety (2019, September). ABC Fire Extinguishers. https://tinyurl.com/j84ntv7x
Marine Extension and Georgia Sea Grant (2020). Resident’s handbook to prepare for natural hazards in Georgia. https://tinyurl.com/4vyyxhyk
National Fire Protection Association (2020, September). Fire loss in the United States. https://tinyurl.com/47udpd8f
North Carolina State Extension (2014). NC disaster information center. https://ncdisaster.ces.ncsu.edu/disaster-factsheets/preparedness/
Operation Hope, Inc. (2019, April). Emergency financial first aid kit (EFFAK) Strengthen your financial preparedness for disasters and emergencies. (Publication number P-1075). https://tinyurl.com/yt3spusu
Ready.gov (2021, May). Disasters and emergencies. https://www.ready.gov/
Reichel, C.H., 2015. Rebuild Healthy Homes [ebook]. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Office of Lead Hazard Control and Healthy Homes. https://tinyurl.com/4hbzeye4
U.S. Department of Homeland Security (2019, July). Planning considerations: Evacuation and shelter-in-place. https://tinyurl.com/fezc98kd
University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (2021, January). Disaster preparation & recovery: Health, home & pets. https://tinyurl.com/8d9n8b94
Thank you to the reviewers.
Sylvia Davis, Family and Consumer Sciences Agent/4-H
University of Georgia Extension, Baker and Mitchell Counties
Michael E. Goldschmidt, AIA LEED, National Director, Healthy Homes Partnership
University of Missouri
Sarah D. Kirby, Ph.D., Assistant Director, Professor, and FCS Program Leader
North Carolina State University
Mitzi L. Parker, Family and Consumer Sciences Agent
University of Georgia Extension, Sumter County
Mary Ellen Welch, Family and Consumer Sciences Educator
University of Connecticut Extension
Resources for more information:
CDC Emergency Preparedness and Response (https://emergency.cdc.gov/)
Red Cross Emergency Resources (https://tinyurl.com/2m648c9x)
UGA Extension Emergency Resources (https://t.uga.edu/7db)
Status and Revision History
Published with Full Review on May 01, 2014
Published with Minor Revisions on Sep 22, 2021