156 publications were found
on Animal Production
A Review of Georgia's Animal Feeding Operation Regulations
This document is intended to be an accurate outline of Georgia’s Animal Waste Regulations at the time of publication, and is not a comprehensive citation. The new regulations require changes in the way AFOs do business. The focus on management of nutrients can improve profitability by better use of nutrients produced on the farms and reduced need for fertilizer purchase. There may also be opportun…
Acorn Toxicosis in Beef Cattle
Autumn and winter are busy seasons for beef cattle producers, and many times grazing and cattle management are not as tightly regulated as in other times of the year. Many Southeastern cattle operations include pastureland that encompasses or borders oak timbers; most North American oak trees are considered toxic. Therefore, when cattle venture into timber land in search of grazing, there is an in…
Adoption of Mastitis Control Technologies in the Southeast to Reduce Mastitis and Improve Milk Quality
Mastitis continues to be a major livestock disease afflicting the U.S. dairy industry. As the industry strives to improve milk quality to meet consumer as well as exportation demands, the legal limit for bulk tank sec will likely be reduced from 750,000/ml to 400,000/ml in the near future. It is estimated that between 10 and 20% of US dairy farms, mostly located in the Southeast, are currently at …
Africanized Honey Bees
Honey bees are among the most well-known and economically important insects. They produce honey and beeswax, and pollinate many crops. In spite of the alarm surrounding Africanization, these bees have not caused widespread or permanent chaos. Dramatic stinging incidents do occur, but the quality of life for most people is unaffected. Typically, the commercial beekeeping industries of Africanized a…
Amino Acid Content in Organic Soybean Meal for the Formulation of Organic Poultry Feed
Amino acids are essential building blocks of proteins and are obtained from plant and animal products. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the chicken, while others (essential amino acids) must be supplied in the diet. In organic poultry production, the sources of these essential amino acids must be organic. This publication compares the amino acid content, digestibility, and availability of or…
Antibiotic Therapy in Mastitis Control for Lactating and Dry Cows
Antibiotic therapy continues to play an important role in the control of mastitis in dairy cows. Lactational therapy is effective against Streptococcus agalactiae but less successful against infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and other causes of mastitis. As a result, alternative treatment strategies have been developed, including a combination of both intramammary infusion and the parente…
Avian Academy Module: Poultry Nutrition
This module describes the role of energy in the body, how much energy is contained in our foods, and how to correctly identify the key nutrient classes that our bodies require from the foods we eat. All of these components are related to the general makeup of a commercial poultry diet. The module is designed to be one in a series of publications to supply relevant educational content related to th…
Basic Introduction to Broiler Housing Environmental Control
Research on improving broiler housing is ongoing. Energy costs are becoming more significant to the grower's bottom line and housing construction, equipment and operation will be paramount in helping to make sure the houses are operated as efficiently as possible. As technology and equipment is redesigned and developed, researchers will continue to examine how broiler housing can be heated, cooled…
Basic Nutritional Guidelines for Equine Management
Providing proper and adequate nutrition is a challenge all horse owners must face. Understanding your horse’s nutritional needs is important, not only to optimize performance, but also to ensure your horse’s safety. The following guidelines emphasize key points to keep in mind when determining how to meet your horse’s nutritional requirements.
Beef Management Calendar
This calendar contains a monthly listing of the common management practices needed for commercial beef herd production in Georgia. Some are recommended at a certain time of the year and others are recommended when calves are a certain age or at a certain point in their reproductive cycle.
Biosecurity Basics for Poultry Growers
Biosecurity refers to procedures used to prevent the introduction and spread of disease-causing organisms in poultry flocks. Because of the concentration in size and location of poultry flocks in current commercial production operations and the inherent disease risks associated with this type of production, it is imperative that poultry producers practice daily biosecurity measures.
Biosecurity for On-Farm Pathogen Control in Poultry
Human campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are two of the most commonly reported gastrointestinal infections worldwide and poultry meat has been identified as the main source of infection. Controlling pathogen colonies of public health concern such as Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry flocks on the farm is critical for a successful overall food safety program. Biosecurity on the farm can con…
Bit selection is a critical area of consideration for riders of all disciplines and levels. Bit selection is often regulated by various breed and/or horse show associations. For many horse enthusiasts, lack of knowledge about bit types and functions, as well as common misconceptions held in the horse industry, can make choosing an appropriate bit a difficult process.
Body Condition Scoring Beef Cows
Body condition scoring (BCS) is an easy and economical way to evaluate the body fat percentage of a cow. Cows can then be sorted and fed according to nutritional needs. Body condition scoring can be an effective tool for cattle producers who cannot weigh cattle, and it may be an even better measurement of cow condition and reproductive performance than weight. Most studies show that body condition…
Bull Buyer's Guide
Bull procurement decisions can greatly impact your future calf crops and herd genetics for many years. Selecting and buying a herd bull is the quickest way to make genetic improvement in your herd. The selection process must include looking for those traits that are economically important and highly heritable. Demand and buy bulls with total performance that will improve your herd. This publicatio…
Calculating the Fertilizer Value of Broiler Litter
This publication gives a procedure to calculate the value of broiler litter based on prevailing retail selling prices of commercial fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Calf Health Basics
Calf health is a key variable for calf growth and performance. Producers should not expect to know all calf health issues, causes, and the most successful treatments. Instead, a producer's main goal should be to accurately identify and differentiate normal from abnormal in a calf's physical state and behavior. The topics discussed in this publications are intended to help producers notice key area…
Caring for the Older Horse: Common Problems and Solutions
Horses have relatively long life spans compared to other livestock and companion animals, often living into their late 20s and early 30s. Many horses have productive careers into their 20s. In fact, in many disciplines, horses do not peak until their teenage years. Good nutrition, maintenance and veterinary care allow horses to lead longer and more productive lives. However, as horses age, their n…
CNMP Development Checklist for Dry Litter Poultry CAFOs
This publication outlines the information needed to develop a Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan (CNMP) for dry poultry litter operations.
Coexisting with Neighbors: A Poultry Farmer's Guide
Conflict prevention measures can be both tangible and intangible in nature. Communication skills and disseminating information may be as important as minimizing odors or pests through improved management practices. The following are practices and suggestions that can help poultry farmers maintain or improve neighbor relations. Proper manure handling practices are foremost points to consider in avo…
Commodity Options as Price Insurance for Cattlemen
One of the greatest risks cattle producers face is price risk. Price changes can come in the form of declining cattle prices for sellers, increasing cattle prices for buyers or increasing feed prices for feed users. Because of this risk, producers might want to “insure” feeder cattle, fed cattle or feed against unfavorable price movements, while still being able to take advantage of favorable pric…
Common Terms Used in Animal Feeding and Nutrition
The purpose of this publication is to serve as an educational
reference and resource to those who are interested
in animal feeding and nutrition. Our primary objective
is to list the common terms used when discussing animal feeding. This listing will also be helpful when reading articles on animal feeding and nutrition, feed analysis reports or tags associated with feeds sold in the market.
Composting 101: How to Effectively Operate a Poultry Mortality Compost Bin
Bin composting daily mortality can be a useful, cost-effective management tool when practiced correctly. However, it can be environmentally harmful if it is not managed and monitored properly. This publication shows the necessary steps to obtain a compost product from daily poultry mortality using a bin composting method.
Composting Mass Poultry Mortalities
Composting is a natural process where beneficial microorganisms decompose and transform organic materials into a useful and biologically stable end-product that is safe for the environment. This process has worked well for many poultry producers nationwide as a means of processing their daily poultry mortality.
Considerations for Using By-Product Feeds
By-product feeds come from a variety of sources, including grain processing, production of human foods and beverages, and manufacturing of fiber products. Although many of these feeds have been used for years, others are relatively new. Research has been conducted on most by-product feeds and the guidelines for their use are well documented; however, limited information is available on the feeding…
Control of Mastitis and Milk Quality in Dairy Goats through Immunization
Prevalence of mastitis in dairy goats ranges between 5% and 30%, with Staphylococcus spp., otherwise known as the coagulase-negative staphylococci, identified as the most frequent cause of infection. These staphylococci produce persistent subclinical mastitis with markedly elevated somatic cell counts (SCC), which may lead to clinical symptoms.
Prevention is the key to controlling staphylococcal …
Cooling Systems for Georgia Dairy Cattle
Heat stress can reduce summer milk production in dairy cows by 15 to 22 percent, according to University of Florida research. The cow's natural defenses cause her appetite to be suppressed in times of high heat stress. Less feed intake naturally leads to less milk production. Reproductive efficiency also suffers in times of heat stress, costing dollars for delayed lactation and rebreeding fees. A …
Cow Behavior: A Critical Factor to Consider Under Heat Stress
Cow behavior is critical for animal well-being and performance and influenced by many factors, such as heat stress. Under thermo-neutral conditions, cows spend half a day lying down and the rest of the time is distributed into standing, feeding and milking. However, when cows are exposed to heat stress, they spend less time lying down but more time standing up. The altered cattle behavior by heat …
Creep Feeding Beef Calves
Creep feeding is the practice of providing supplemental feed (grain or forage) to nursing calves. This is usually done with the use of a creep gate, which is large enough for calves to enter the feeding area but too small to allow cows to pass. Creep feeding systems vary from grain-based energy supplements to limit-fed protein supplements to creep grazing. Each system generally produces increased …
Cutting Costs, Not Corners: Managing Cattle in Tough Times
Cutting costs allows producers to survive during trying times and also teaches valuable lessons that may actually increase profits in future years. Cutting corners, on the other hand, may save some money in the short-run but ultimately will have very detrimental effects.
Dairy Business Analysis Project: 1999 Summary for Florida and Georgia Dairies
The Dairy Business Analysis Project was initiated in 1996 to measure and document the financial performance of Florida dairy businesses using standardized accounting measures, so uniform comparisons could be made among participants. Formal collaboration between the Universities of Florida and Georgia began in 1998. This publication presents the results from fiscal year 1999 information.
Dairy Business Analysis Project: 2005 Summary for Florida and Georgia Dairies
Financial data for the year 2005 were collected from participating dairy farms and screened for completeness and validity. Each dairy farm then received a benchmark report detailing its financial results compared to the average results for the other participants and the six dairy farms with the highest net farm income per cwt. This benchmark report is discussed with the dairy farms to identify cha…
Dairy Genetic Benchmarks
This publication provides genetic benchmarks for Holstein herds processed by Dairy Records Management Systems. Examples for using and applying benchmark values are provided; however, this publication should be viewed primarily as a comprehensive resource of genetic benchmark values. These values will be useful to dairy producers, dairy managers, consultants, veterinarians and agribusiness represen…
Dairy Herd Synchronization Programs
This publication describes dairy herd synchronization programs will help improve your reproductive management efficiency. Try the one that fits your management system the best. Both estrus and ovulation synchronization programs will help get more animals bred more efficiently. Feeding open animals extra days can be costly to producers. Identify open animals and pick the best breeding alternative f…
Dairy Judging Terminology: A Guide to Saying What She is and Not What She Isn't
This guide is designed to help you improve your reasons for your placings in dairy cattle evaluations. Slowly incorporate new terms into your oral reasons and your ability to describe what you see will continue to improve. Concentrate on what you see instead of what you don't see. You only have 2 ½ minutes to justify your placings. Use I.D. points, and Practice! Practice! Practice!
Dairy Production and Management Benchmarks
This publication provides production and management benchmarks for Holstein herds processed by Dairy Records Management Systems. Some examples of using and applying benchmark values are provided. However, this publication should be viewed primarily as a comprehensive resource of production and management benchmark values. These benchmarks will be useful to dairy producers, dairy managers, consulta…
Dairy Reproduction Benchmarks
This publication provides reproduction benchmarks for Holstein herds processed by Dairy Records Management Systems. Some examples of using and applying benchmark values are provided; however, this publication should be viewed primarily as a comprehensive resource for reproduction benchmark values. These benchmarks will be useful to dairy producers, dairy managers, consultants, veterinarians and ag…
Dealing with Pasture, Hay, Feed, and Livestock Losses After Significant Weather Events
As a result of significant weather events, many producers in Georgia may experience losses of pasture growth, hay stocks, feed supplies, and livestock. After such events occur, farmers will be assessing damage to fields, stock, and property for many days, weeks, months. This publication is intended to provide recommendations to farmers that have experienced adverse affects due to significant weath…
Developing a Storm Preparedness and Response Plan for Dairies
The Southeast U.S. is susceptible to hurricanes and tropical storms every year. Hurricane season occurs from June 1 through November 30, and these storms are normally forecast several days in advance. Tornadoes, ice storms, thunderstorms, or straight-line winds—potentially damaging winds produced by thunderstorms—are rarely forecast with enough notice to prepare other than to hopefully warn employ…
Drought Management Strategies for Beef Cattle
Drought conditions are a yearly occurrence in Georgia and have been prolonged in several areas over the past several years. These conditions can have severe impacts on cattle, and every cattleman should have a plan in place to minimize the effects of drought on the farm's finances. This publication describes several management strategies for producers to consider during drought conditions.
Drought-Related Cattle Feeding Problems
Drought does not develop overnight but progressively over time. Proper management during a drought period can make or break a producer's ability to stay in the cattle business. One main concern during a drought period is feeding and nutrition of the cow herd. Several problems could arise due to drought conditions. A good producer should stay alert for warning signs and avoid potentially damaging s…
Eco-Friendly Garden: Attracting Pollinators, Beneficial Insects, and Other Natural Predators
A pollinator-friendly and ecologically sustainable garden is both beautiful and able to attract and sustain beneficial insects, reducing the need for pesticides. This publication is based on new research in habitat management for purposes of planting insect-attracting plant species in order to intentionally draw insects to garden areas and urban landscapes. This is done by providing a refuge for t…
Environmental Factors to Control when Brooding Chicks
The main objective in brooding chicks is to efficiently and economically provide a comfortable, healthy environment for growing birds. Temperature, air quality, humidity and light are critical factors to consider. Failure to provide the adequate environment during the brooding period will reduce profitability, resulting in reduced growth and development, poorer feed conversion, and increased disea…
Equine Parasite Control: Moving Beyond Rotational Deworming
Parasite resistance is an increasing problem in livestock species, including horses. Equine deworming practices have historically involved a six-week rotational deworming schedule. However, these practices have led to parasite resistance to many of our available dewormers. This publication addresses the current recommendations for deworming based on fecal egg counts, including why parasite resista…
Estimating Crude Protein Variability and Savings of Broiler Feeds Using Microsoft Excel
This publication describes Microsoft Excel workbooks designed to calculate the effects of dividing ingredients into above- and below-average portions (2-bin method) and the costs of providing nutrients at specified confidence levels.
Estrous Synchronization for Beef Cattle
strous (heat) synchronization in beef cattle involves manipulating the females' estrous cycle so they can be bred at about the same time. The normal 21-day estrous cycle in beef cattle can be altered by following an effective estrous synchronization protocol. Numerous estrous synchronization protocols have been developed that use a combination of different drugs and products to alter hormonal chan…
Evaluating Common Equine Performance Classes
When competing in youth horse judging contests or events at horse shows, it is important to have a good understanding of basic performance events that may be encountered. This publication is designed to give a basic overview of common hunt seat and western pleasure performance classes. It is by no means comprehensive of all events that may be seen and does not go in-depth on any one event.
Evaluating Horse Conformation
When examining horses for conformation, either when considering a purchase or competing in horse judging contests, it is important to break things down into key principles to avoid becoming overwhelmed when putting the overall picture together. There are five main criteria to evaluate when examining a horse's conformation: balance, structural correctness, way of going, muscling, and breed/sex char…
Factors Affecting Calving Difficulty
Calving difficulty, otherwise known as dystocia, may result in reduced calf performance, delayed estrus and, in some cases, loss of the calf and/or dam. This publication discusses several factors affecting calving difficulty and provides management suggestions that may be useful to prevent its occurrence.
Factors Contributing to Poultry House Structural Failures
Most structural failures in poultry houses are due to a combination of weaknesses in the structural members, including the foundation, walls, trusses and the connections between them. Improvements in any of the factors described in this publication will help the strength of the building.
Feeder Calf Grading Fundamentals
Feeder cattle buyers, marketers, and producers are able to communicate the potential growth and carcass merit potential of individual and grouped calves using the USDA Feeder Cattle Grading Standards. Producers that are aware of these standards and their use in predicting carcass value are better suited to making breeding and management decisions to improve the value of future calf crops.
Feeding for Improved Yield of Milk Components
This bulletin provides information for producers, nutritionists, and feed industry personnel on formulating diets to maintain or improve milk composition. The value of milk components is increasing more than skim milk, so this topic impacts all dairy farmers. The publication provides information on feeding dairy cows for improved yield of milk components, providing background on how the cow synthe…
Feeding Issues for Broiler Breeder Feather Cover
Feather coverage is important for both thermoregulation and disease prevention. Because feathers are made of protein, there are obvious nutritional factors that affect feather coverage in high yield broiler breeds. This publication summarizes the importance and structure of the feather and the feed-related factors that impact feather coverage.
Feeding Sprouted Wheat to Cattle
Sprouted grains are usually considered unsuitable for milling or distilling; however, they can serve as an excellent source of nutrients for cattle.
Wheat, which is commonly used for human consumption, is usually priced higher than other feedstuffs and is typically not utilized for livestock consumption. Sprouted wheat, however, is discounted heavily at the mill and may be economically feasible to…
Feeding Strategies for Peak Performance in Horses
Nutrition can play a key role in achieving peak athletic performance in horses. This publication discusses ways to enhance feeding strategies to maximize training and conditioning programs and keep horses in peak physical condition. It also includes a Body Condition Scoring table.
Feeding Whole Cottonseed to Dairy Cows and Replacements
Whole cottonseed is an excellent feed for dairy cattle due to its high level of fiber, protein and energy (fat) in a compact package. It can be fed just as it comes from the gin without processing or may be pelleted before feeding. Whole cottonseed can also be used to stretch limited forage supply. Dairymen should capitalize on this situation as much as possible. Some limiting factors to consider …
Fences for Horses
Fences are necessary to safely confine horses yet provide them with the opportunity to exercise and graze. Because of the natural flight response of horses, they tend to injure themselves in fences more than most other livestock. In addition, many horses are extremely valuable and that justifies the extra cost of building a fence that is safe, strong and attractive. When selecting a fence, conside…
Fescue Toxicosis in Horses
Tall fescue is the primary cool season perennial forage grown in the state of Georgia, and toxicity issues related to the grass can have significant impacts on equine reproduction. Tall fescue is the most heat tolerant of the cool season grasses due to a fungus that grows within the plant called an endophyte. This endophyte produces ergot alkaloids that can have negative effects on animals that ea…
Forage Systems for Horses in Georgia
A good pasture and forage program can provide quality feed and normally will be the most efficient and economical means of providing a substantial part of equine rations. In Georgia, we are fortunate to have a mild climate, soils suitable for producing forages and a good selection of highly productive forage species. With careful planning and good management, adequate grazing can be supplied for u…
Forage Systems for Stocker Cattle
This publication provides a guide to the various forage systems that could be used for stocker development and provides guidelines for managing grazing or hay harvests for optimum forage yield and quality.
Forage Use and Grazing Herd Management During a Drought
This brief management guideline provides producers with specific management tactics that may minimize the potential for short- and long-term problems. These tactics, categorized in order of early, advanced, and severe drought stages, are based on specific characteristics including water loss, forage growth, and rainfall.
Freeze Branding Cattle
To improve efficiency, cattle producers should place a high priority on identifying individual cattle and maintaining accurate records. One type of permanent identification is branding.
Genomic Testing in Beef Cattle: How Does it Work?
Genomic testing is not a new idea in the eyes of science, but its application in today's beef industry is still met with some confusion. The purpose of this publication is to explain to county agents and producers how genomic testing works, how to use the results, and why this technology is valuable to cattlemen. This bulletin covers a simple history of genetic technology; parentage testing and si…
Giant Miscanthus Grass as an Alternative Bedding in Poultry Houses
Pine shavings are the most popular bedding material used in poultry houses. Due in part to the expansion of the poultry industry, pine shavings are in short supply, and alternative bedding materials are being tested.
Giant miscanthus grass (GMG) is one such material. GMG is a perennial grass that is dried and chopped into one-inch pieces for bedding. When compared to pine shavings, GMG is a good…
Global Warming: How Does It Relate to Poultry?
This publication provides information relevant for agriculture and other industries that are under increasing public pressure to reduce emissions of certain atmospheric gases. Explanations are given about greenhouse gases, carbon footprints, reducing fossil fuel use, alternative energy sources, manure management and carbon credits. Knowing your carbon footprint or energy use can help poultry produ…
Guidelines for Prospective Contract Hatching Egg Producers
Producing more than 8 billion pounds of chicken meat requires the support of hatching egg producers. Hatching egg production is a very different business from broiler meat production, as it requires different management skills and greater labor commitments. Because of the uniqueness of the hatching egg business and the long-term investment demands for an operator, it is important that prospective …
Guidelines for Using Feeds Containing Aflatoxin in Dairy Rations
Aflatoxin is formed in stressed plants by the mold Aspergillius flavus. The mycotoxin is produced by an actively growing mold. The mold can be present without mycotoxin formation or the mycotoxin may be present without the mold. The formation of the mycotoxin can occur during storage if the feed is not kept dry. Aflatoxin can be found in many grains and forages but is most commonly found in corn, …
Halter Training Beef Cattle
If you or someone you know is planning to halter
train beef cattle, remember that the calf must be
coached—it will not instinctively know what to do.
Good coaching equals better results. This circular focuses on how to be a good coach during the halter training process for beef cattle.
Hay Replacement Rations for Cows and Early Weaned Calves
Over half of Georgia has been in a prolonged drought since the beginning of May 2016, essentially the entire forage growing season. The drought has hindered the ability of many cattle owners to grow and/or procure enough hay to make it through the winter. Therefore, there is a need to economically develop dietary strategies to maintain cattle through the winter.
This publication describes the pr…
Heat Detection Strategies for Dairy Cattle
When the time comes to examine a herd's dairy reproductive management program, producers often want to discuss low conception rates. In most cases, however, inadequate heat detection is the much greater reproductive problem. Heat detection is the first step to getting an animal bred. According to DHIA records, producers in Georgia are only seeing a third of their heats. Missed heats are one of sev…
Herd Bull Management: Pre-Breeding Period
The pre-breeding period (two months prior to breeding) is essential for preparing bulls for a successful breeding season. This is particularly important for yearling bulls as they are still growing and will use for energy during their first breeding season. Pre-breeding management should include an adaptation period, breeding soundness exam, health care, exercise, and an evaluation of body conditi…
Honey Bee Swarms and Bees in Walls
This circular is for property owners who have unwanted honey bee swarms on their lands or colonies nesting inside walls. It explains these natural processes and gives options for dealing with them.
Honey Bees and Beekeeping
Honey bees are commonly kept in artificial hives throughout the United States, and a large and sophisticated beekeeping industry provides valuable honey, beeswax and pollination services. A large section of the industry, well represented in Georgia, is devoted to mass-producing queens and bees for sale to other beekeepers.
Horn Fly Control to Increase Productivity in Dairy Heifers
The implementation of horn fly control measures, such as aerosols, bait, strips, foggers, dust bags, traps, oilers, ear tags, pour-ons, natural predators, and insect growth regulators is instrumental in reducing the new infection rate, while existing mastitis cases can be eliminated with antibiotic therapy. Such management practices will promote animal health and well-being, enhancing producer pro…
How to Feed a Horse: Understanding the Basic Principles of Horse Nutrition
With so many feed, supplement and hay choices available, many people find themselves wondering exactly what their horse needs for good health and nutrition. Many horse-feeding opinions and myths make deciding what to feed even more difficult. This publication explains your horse's nutritional needs, common guidelines to observe when feeding your horse and how to determine if your horse's nutrition…
How to Improve Your Percent Calf Crop
The number of calves sold is a major source of income from a cow/calf operation. A high percent calf crop increases profit. Reproductive efficiency is the first factor to consider in a breeding program. A beef cow must conceive in the first 40 to 60 days of the breeding season, have a live calf unassisted, breed back to calve every 12 months, and raise a calf that is heavy enough to be profitable.…
Impact of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) on Reproduction in Cattle
Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), commonly referred to as “Rednose,” is a disease resulting from bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1). The detriment of the disease, as well as the positive benefits vaccination can have on a reproductive program, needs to be on the forefront of a producer's herd health program.
Implanting Beef Cattle
Implanting nursing calves with a growth stimulant is one of the most economically justifiable practices available in the beef industry. Implants have been shown to increase weaning weights of nursing calves in hundreds of research trials. Stocker and feedlot calves exhibit even greater responses than nursing calves. Implanting returns more revenue per dollar invested than any other management prac…
Importance of Grit Removal from Commercial Shell Egg Processing Wastewater
This publication is designed to give commercial egg processors the information they need to understand and effectively deal with the wastewater grit generated from the conveying, washing and grading of table eggs.
Improving Artificial Insemination Techniques
Using incorrect A.I. techniques can lower the overall success rate of the A.I. breeding program. Most producers learned correct semen handling techniques and insemination procedures at one time; unfortunately, many have developed bad habits that have lowered their success rates. This publication reviews proper procedures that should help eliminate some of those common mistakes.
Improving Dairy Heifer Reproductive Management
Reproductive management of dairy heifers is one area in which many dairy producers can improve. Heifers are the most fertile animals in a herd and should have the greatest genetic potential. Dairy producers need to pay more attention to getting heifers bred sooner and breeding them to genetically superior bulls. This publication describes methods for improving dairy heifer reproductive management.
Is Your Heifer Fit to Show? A Guide to Fitting and Showing Dairy Animals
Every animal emerging from the pasture or barn needs time and attention to get her show-ring ready. The showman on the other end of the halter needs to be prepared as well. Faults in either fitting or showing could lead to a less successful show experience than one might have hoped for. This publication offers advice on fitting and showing dairy animals, including the updated PDCA scorecard, maxim…
Land Application of Livestock and Poultry Manure
This publication provides information on (1) the nutrient content of manures available for land application, (2) how to determine manure application rates and whether supplemental fertilizer will be needed for maximum crop production and (3) how to use management techniques to maximize the fertilization potential of farm manures.
Litter Quality and Broiler Performance
Quality of chicks, feed and water are all of great concern to broiler producers, but quality of litter in broiler houses is seldom given sufficient emphasis. This is unfortunate because birds are in continuous contact with litter. Litter conditions significantly influence broiler performance and, ultimately, the profits of growers and integrators. Litter is defined as the combination of bedding ma…
Maintaining Good Egg Quality: A Guide for Small Producers
The quality of an egg involves both the exterior and interior qualities of the egg. Egg quality includes the cleanliness of the shell, soundness of the shell, thickness of the albumen, and color of the yolk. Good egg quality is critical to maintaining the hatching potential of eggs, as improper handling or storage of eggs will reduce the ability of the eggs to hatch and produce good quality chicks…
Management Guide for the Backyard Flock
This publication focuses on raising a small flock of chickens (50 or less) for meat and eggs (either for hatching or eating).
Management Strategies to Reduce Heat Stress, Prevent Mastitis and Improve Milk Quality in Dairy Cows and Heifers
This publication describes management strategies to reduce heat stress, prevent mastitis and improve milk quality in dairy cows and heifers.
Managing Algal Blooms and the Potential for Algal Toxins in Pond Water
Certain algae can cause serious problems when they become very abundant in drought, hot weather, unusual rainfall patterns, or after nutrient accumulation in pond water. Fortunately, most ponds do not experience toxin problems or dense algal blooms. Watching for the warning signs that lead to toxic algal bloom development is the best way to prevent toxin problems.
This publication describes how t…
Managing and Feeding Lactating Dairy Cows in Hot Weather
Hot and humid environmental conditions stress the lactating dairy cow and reduce intake of the nutrients necessary to support milk yield and body maintenance. In Georgia, weather conditions are sufficiently hot and humid to reduce performance of dairy cows for five months or more each year. This publication presents methods that can be used to minimize the stress on dairy cows during hot weather a…
Managing Endometritis in the Dairy Herd
When it comes to managing a dairy herd, infections and inflammation of the cow's uterus can have negative implications for animal welfare, milk production, and rebreeding capacity. Maintaining uterine health is essential for proper ovarian function and the creation of a uterine environment that is favorable for successful pregnancy. Although all production species can suffer from disruptions to ut…
Managing Fish Ponds During Drought
Dry weather tests pond design limits for water retention, watershed area and depth. Without adequate rainfall, ponds and the property around them lose value and the pond owner can lose the fish or have to spend substantial amounts of money for weed control or pond renovation. Over the past decade, drought conditions have been the normal weather pattern across the southeastern United States. Pond d…
Managing Mastitis in Dairy Heifers to Improve Overall Herd Health
Prevalence of mastitis in unbred, breeding-age and pregnant dairy heifers is higher than formerly realized. Infected
mammary quarters, especially those with Staph. aureus IMI, exhibit reduced mammary gland secretory
potential, marked leukocyte infiltration and the accompanying inflammation. Both nonlactating and lactating
commercial antibiotic infusion products have been used successfully to cu…
Managing Mastitis through Proper Dry-Off Procedures
Research has demonstrated that proper dry-off methods are vital in promoting udder health during the nonlactating period and at calving. For high producing cows, it may be necessary to decrease dietary energy over the last 1-2 weeks of lactation by increasing fiber and eliminating grain. Abrupt cessation of milking is probably as good as intermittent milking with a diet change for low and medium p…
Managing the Pregnant Mare
To have a successful equine breeding program, producers must be able to ensure delivery of a healthy foal while maximizing the health of the mare. The information in this bulletin is designed to provide basic concepts in pregnant mare management.
Maximizing Poultry Manure Use through Nutrient Management Planning
This publication provides current information about the appropriate application and most effective use of poultry fertilizer. It will also help poultry producers develop a simple nutrient management plan that meets permitting authority standards.
Maximum Ingredient Level Optimization Workbook for Estimating the Maximum Safe Levels of Feedstuffs
New feed ingredients are evaluated and introduced to the feed industry every year. The evaluation process is necessary and includes feeding birds different levels of the test ingredient to estimate the maximum safe level (MSL). The MSL is usually estimated with a multiple range test, ignoring the fact that this test is inappropriate for this type of feeding trials where the independent variable is…
Measuring the Dry Matter Content of Feeds
Adjust rations for the dry matter (DM) content of each feed, especially when wet feeds, such as silage, are fed. Small changes in the DM content will change the nutrient profile of the ration. The potential results of not monitoring the DM content of wet feeds and adjusting rations accordingly are a combination of problems including decreased animal performance and feed efficiency and increased he…
Meat Goat Production in Georgia
Goats are the most widely-dispersed meat animals and have been raised for centuries to provide meat, milk, fiber, cashmere and leather. Due to their small size, adaptability to harsh environments and availability, they have been more popular in nations lacking refrigeration, animal management skills and modern transportation. This publication deals solely with Spanish or meat-type goats in Georgia…
Mineral Supplements for Beef Cattle
Beef cattle require a number of minerals for optimal growth and reproduction. Selecting the correct mineral supplement is important for maintaining healthy animals, and optimal growth and reproduction.
Mortality Composting Basics for Poultry Producers
Composting is an age-old practice that has been adapted as a means of daily animal mortality disposal and can be beneficial for the environment. This publication describes how to compost poultry mortalities.
Mortality Management Options for Georgia Poultry Producers
Poultry production facilities must deal with the disposal of farm mortalities on a daily basis. Death loss in animal production is an unfortunate reality that requires appropriate handling to prevent the spread of disease, the potential for odor and pest problems, and the possible contamination of surface and ground water. Each disposal method has advantages and disadvantages. Regardless of the me…
Nuisance Myths and Poultry Farming
This publication provides factual information about three common myths of poultry farming: that poultry farms will ruin the environment, that they smell, and that the air exhausted from poultry houses will damage property and cause health concerns.
Nutrition for the Backyard Flock
Providing the right nutrition for your chickens means ensuring that what they eat supplies all of the essential amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water that they will need to produce the meat or eggs you hope to collect. This publication provides an overview of what you should look for when choosing poultry feed and how to choose a diet that is appropriate for variou…
Nutritional and Metabolic Disorders of Southeastern Beef Cattle
In the Southeastern U.S., beef cattle producers focus on forage management and maximizing the grazing season. To that end, Southeastern cattle spend the vast majority of their lives either grazing or consuming stored forage. Cereal grains and coproduct feeds are also commonly used nutritional supplements for cattle in times of elevated nutrient requirement. Any disease or disorder in the beef herd…
Nutritional Response Determination Optimization Workbook v. 1.0
An Excel workbook, Nutritional Response Determination Optimization (NuRDO). has been developed to simulate the optimal number or nutrient levels and replicates per level when planning nutritional requirement studies. With NuRDO, researchers can simulate data from what they think is the real shape of the response curve. They can then run up to 1,000 simulated experiments to see the combination of …
Nutritional Response Models: A Workbook to Fit Data From Nutritional Experiments to Several Models
This Excel workbook will allow you to fit data from nutritional experiments to several models. It includes a PowerPoint presentation that shows you how to use the Excel workbook to fit several regression models to experimental data. The models may be used to estimate nutritional requirements or the most economical feeding levels of critical nutrients. All you need is Microsoft Excel (with macros e…
Organic Poultry Production vs. Other Systems
There are a number of different poultry production systems available today, and consumers commonly confuse organic poultry production with other systems. Pasture-raised poultry and natural poultry are not organically produced, as they do not meet all or any of the standards set by the National Organic Program, which regulates and certifies production systems as "organic." Consumers should be aware…
Oxygen Depletion in Ponds
Fish ponds may experience a loss of oxygen at any time of the year, depending on the weather and amount of nutrient enrichment the pond has received; however, most oxygen depletions occur in warm weather and usually follow a period of cloudy, overcast conditions. Low oxygen concentration in pond water means stress and possibly death for the pond fish. When fish die from low oxygen, there can be se…
Pen-size Optimization Workbook of Experimental Research Design (POWER for Poultry)
This publication contains an Excel spreadsheet to help poultry producers calculate the ideal number of birds to group into pens based on their operations and goals.
Pollination of Vegetable Crops
Plants develop seeds through a process called pollination. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the stamen (male flower part) to the pistil (female flower part).
Pond Fertilization and Liming in Georgia
Proper fertilization and liming help maximize fish production in ponds. This publication describes how to effectively fertilize and apply lime to a pond for optimum fish production.
Poultry Disease Prevention Checklist
Disease prevention is much less stressful and costly than disease control and recovery. Biosecurity measures are a critical component of disease prevention. Use this list to rate your disease prevention practices and preparedness.
Poultry Drinking Water Primer
Water is a critical nutrient that receives little attention until a problem arises. Not only should producers make an effort to provide water in adequate quantity, they should also know what is in the water to be used in evaporative cooling systems and consumed by the birds.
Poultry Litter Application on Pastures and Hayfields
Poultry litter is widely used on pastures and hayfields in Georgia. There are many benefits when it is used wisely. Producers should use nutrient management planning and recommended rates to ensure poultry litter is used in ways that maximize its benefits without harming the environment.
Poultry Litter Composting for Backyard Flocks
Your coop is ready. You've built a covered run or exercise yard to keep your chickens safe from predators and wild birds that carry diseases. Your chicks are old enough to move outside, and you're eagerly awaiting your first fresh eggs.
In the meantime, your chickens are producing something else on a daily basis: manure. How do you handle all of that poultry poop so that your neighbors don't com…
Poultry Litter Sampling
Poultry litter is a mixture of poultry manure, feathers, wasted feed, and bedding material that contains nitrogen, phosphate, potash, and other nutrients essential for plant growth. Poultry litter can vary considerably in nutrient content due to bird type, feed composition, bedding materials used, clean-out frequency, storage and handling practices, use of litter amendments, and other factors. The…
Poultry Mortality Disposal: Methods Following Catastrophic Loss
Mortality disposal following a natural disaster or catastrophic disease event can become a major challenge for poultry producers. Disposal decisions must balance animal health goals with those of environmental protection and safeguarding public health. In the event of catastrophic disease, humane destruction of infected or exposed poultry and proper disposal is needed to stop further spread of inf…
Poultry Processing: Measuring True Water Use Converting your plant from gpb to gpk
The goal of this publication is to introduce the development of a more accurate measurement of water-use efficiency based on the bulk quantities of materials handled at each processing step at a poultry slaughter plant.
Power of Electrolyzed Water: A New Antimicrobial Intervention for the Beef Industry
Extensive research conducted at the University of Georgia has demonstrated that electrolyzed (EO) water is effective in inactivating a wide variety of pathogens from various foods and food contact surfaces. Controlled lab tests have shown that EO water is effective in reducing all of the "top 7" shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from beef trim.
Practical Use and Application of the Poultry Carbon Footprint Calculation Tool
The cumulative greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from any human activity are commonly referred to as the carbon footprint. The Poultry Carbon Footprint Calculation Tool was developed and designed specifically for poultry production farms. The tool can be used to estimate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from pullet, breeder, and broiler grow-out farms.
This publication provides an overview for pou…
Preventing Salmonella Colonization of Chickens: Electrostatic Application of Electrolyzed Oxidative Acidic Water
Electrolyzed oxidative water applied using electrostatic spraying is an effective means of eliminating pathogenic and indicator populations of bacteria from hatching eggs. Using this method in a pilot scale hatchery, the percentage of chickens that were colonized with Salmonella was dramatically reduced. These studies demonstrate that the use of EO water in combination with electrostatic spraying …
Production Costs vs. Feeding Value of Forages
Determining an equitable price for purchased forages is a necessary but often uncomfortable topic of discussion for feed growers and purchasers. Usually this discussion is in the context of corn silage; however, the same principles can be used in any discussion involving hay, baleage or grains. In order for an input market to be efficient, the price agreed upon by both buyers and sellers should ad…
Profitable Cattle Marketing for the Cow-Calf Producer
Profitable cattle marketing means producing the most profitable calf, selling through the most profitable market outlet and pricing at the most profitable time. Unfortunately, most cow-calf producers simply sell their calves. Marketing means choices on how or what to put on the market, where to market and when to price. The first step in becoming a cattle marketer is to recognize all your alternat…
Record Keeping for Dairy Operations in Georgia
Records are an asset as well as a regulatory requirement for permitted Georgia dairy operations. Although accurate record keeping takes a little additional time and effort, in some cases records (or a lack of records) can determine whether or not an operation stays in business.
Reproductive Management of Commercial Beef Cows
Reproductive efficiency has long been recognized as the most important aspect of commercial beef production. This publication explains how improved herd management and selection for reproductive performance can substantially increase the percent calf crop.
Resolviendo Problemas Después del Parto
La identificación y el diagnóstico temprano de problemas reproductivos relacionados a nuestro programa de salud del hato es una parte esencial de un manejo eficiente de nuestra producción lechera. Muchos factores durante el periodo horro (seco), el parto y la lactancia temprana pueden disminuir la eficiencia reproductiva. Estos incluyen la mastitis, quistes ováricos, falta de condición física (bod…
Selecting a Beef Breed
New cattle producers frequently ask, “Which breed should I choose?” This question brings cold chills to many knowledgeable cattle producers and excitement to just as many enthusiastic breeders. The diversity of resources and management capabilities of any operation makes this question difficult to answer.
Setting Goals to Improve Breeding Strategies
Problem identification is the first step in establishing objectives and goals to improve reproductive management in a dairy herd. Management is determining what must be done and achieving results through the efforts of yourself and your employees. Use the following worksheet to evaluate herd reproductive performance and set goals to improve your breeding strategies. Then develop a tactical plan to…
Small Farm Nutrient Management Primer: For Un-permitted Animal Feeding Operations
Producers need to be aware of the impacts that manure can have on water and air quality. However, management of manure and other byproducts of livestock and poultry production has important impacts on farm profitability, neighbor relations and protecting soil and water quality.
This publication covers: Farm and Homestead Maps; Manure Storage and Treatment; Nutrient Budgeting with Nitrogen and Pho…
Solving Postpartum Breeding Problems
Early identification and diagnosis of reproductive problems through a herd health program are an essential part of successful dairy management. A cow must be pregnant by 85 days postpartum to achieve a 12-month calving interval. This is the backbone of sound reproductive management in an economical dairy business. Many factors during the dry period, parturition and early lactation can lower reprod…
Somatic Cell Count Benchmarks
This publication provides somatic cell count benchmarks for Holstein herds processed by Dairy Records Management Systems. Some examples of using and applying benchmark values are provided. However, this publication should be viewed primarily as a comprehensive resource of somatic cell count benchmark values. These benchmarks will be useful to dairy producers, dairy managers, consultants, veterinar…
Spanish Series: Compostaje Básico Para el Avicultor
Composteo es una vieja práctica, muy benéfica para el medio ambiente, utilizada para la eliminacion y disposición diaria de los animales muertos.
[Composting is an age-old practice that has been adapted as a means of daily animal mortality disposal and can be beneficial for the environment. This publication describes how to compost poultry mortalities.]
Spanish Series: Estrategias de Detección de Celo para Ganado Lechero
La detección de celo es el primer paso para hacer que un animal se preñe. De acuerdo con los registros de la Asociación Nacional para la Información de Hatos Lecheros (DHIA por sus siglas en inglés) los productores en Georgia solo ven un tercio de los celos. Los celos perdidos son uno de varios factores que contribuyen a intervalos largos entre partos. Al aumentar el número de celos observados es …
Spanish Series: Programas de Sincronización de Hatos
Los datos del programa Dairy Records Management Systems (DRMS) demuestran que hatos de alta producción tienen índices de concepción bajos, y estos tienen también pasarán menos días abiertos y tienen una mayor taza de detección de celo.
[This publication describes dairy herd synchronization programs will help improve your reproductive management efficiency. Try the one that fits your management sy…
Speaking Spanish to Improve Dairy Cattle Reproduction
This publication contains English-Spanish translations of common dairy reproduction terminology to help producers better use Spanish to evaluate reproductive management and communicate with employees.
Sport Fish Management in Ponds
Properly managed ponds supply an abundance of fish for recreation and nutrition. Stocking methods and catch rates are used to keep pond balance. Liming and fertilization recommendations for ponds in Georgia are important when planning fish harvest goals. A variety of fish species for pond stocking are discussed in this publication. Methods to improve pond balance, including fish population renovat…
Strategies for Poor Quality Forage Management in Georgia Cow Herds
Massive variation in the 2018 hay crop may pose a serious risk for cows and cattle ranchers in Georgia. This publication provides crucial information on how to address these issues, including guidelines for feeding and supplement formulation for cows in a variety of production scenarios given large variations in hay quality.
Tattoo Application in Beef Cattle
Livestock shows and purebred sales often require an ear tattoo as a form of permanent identification. If the rules of your next event require a tattoo, it is imperative for it to be accurate and easily read. Mistakes or improper application of tattoos can be very frustrating situations for everyone involved. Illegible, infected or incorrect digits are unfortunately common. Following a few key step…
The Value of Poultry Litter in South Georgia
Of the 10.2 million tons of poultry litter generated annually in the U.S., Georgia generates approximately 2 million tons. Over the years, poultry litter has been used for composting, pelletizing, and converting to electricity, steam and biogas; however, the most common use has been land application. Poultry litter has an organic fertilizer value in excess of $80.00 per ton based on current fertil…
Troubleshooting Salmonella in Poultry Processing Plants: Case Studies
This publication provides suggestions regarding the proper tuning of a poultry processing plant to meet the USDA-FSIS standards for Salmonella levels, regardless of incoming Salmonella levels.
UGA Basic Balancer
The UGA Basic Balancer is a spreadsheet-based decision aid to formulate basic rations for beef cattle operations. The nutrient requirements used in this program are adapted from guidelines presented in the 2000 National Research Council publication “Nutrient Requirement of Beef Cattle: Seventh Revised Edition: Update 2000." The UGA Basic Balancer program consists of a feed library, least cost feed…
Understanding and Using Cattle Basis in Managing Price Risk
Understanding the concept of basis is a key element in developing a sound marketing plan. Basis refers to the relationship between a commodity’s cash price in a local market and its futures market price. A more formal definition of basis is the difference between the cash price and the futures price for the time, place and quality where delivery actually occurs. Even if a producer never uses the c…
Understanding Beef Carcass Reports
Many retained ownership programs offer producers the opportunity to receive a level of data from the feed-yard and packing plant that is rarely available after those animals leave the farm. Producers can use this information to make genetic changes in their herd to better the marketability of their calves. However, before this information can be utilized, producers must understand what these terms…
Understanding Gestation in the Mare and the Potential for Problems
To have a successful equine breeding program, producers must successfully
manage animals both pre- and post-breeding to ensure delivery of a healthy foal
while maximizing the health of the mare. The following information is designed
give a basic understanding of how to identify pregnant mares, to outline major
events in pregnancy development, and to identify some primary issues that can
Understanding Reproductive Events in the Mare for Successful Breeding Programs
A solid understanding of mare cyclicity is the foundation on which to build or evaluate an equine breeding program. Horses differ from other species both in timing of cyclicity as well as endocrine patterns within a cycle. Basic principles can aid horse breeders in more effectively timing and breeding with or without hormone manipulation.
This publication provides an in-depth explanation of the s…
Using Chemicals in Pond Management
Chemicals are applied to ponds and lakes to control aquatic weeds, to eliminate undesirable fish, to control undesirable insects and aquatic vertebrates, and to correct undesirable water quality problems. Pond owners are often confused by terminology, units of measure, and formulations. This publication explains how to safely and effectively use chemicals for pond management.
Using Distillers Grains in Beef Cattle Diets
With the growth of the ethanol industry in recent history, the availability of distillers grains, a byproduct of ethanol production, has increased. Distillers grains can serve as an excellent source of nutrients for beef cattle. However, several considerations must be taken into consideration before utilizing this resource. These include economics, nutrient content and potentially deleterious effe…
Using Futures Markets to Manage Price Risk in Feeder Cattle Operations
In today’s farming environment of extreme price volatility and large debt commitments, most livestock producers need the security of one or more of the advantages offered by price risk management. Livestock producers who are selling products or purchasing inputs can do one of two things when making pricing decisions: accept the market price when they are ready to deliver products or purchase input…
Using Live Animal Carcass Ultrasound in Beef Cattle
One tool that aids producers in the efficient and profitable production of beef cattle is live animal carcass ultrasound. The use of carcass ultrasound is an economical way cattlemen can make genetic improvements in carcass traits, which will, in turn, put profits in their pockets.
Vaccination as a Tool to Control Mastitis in Dairy Cows
Due to cows' universal exposure to manure, which contains E. coli and other gram-negative bacteria, as well as the requirement to maintain sec as low as possible, all cows should be vaccinated with one of the coliform vaccines available on the market. These vaccines have been proven to significantly reduce clinical coliform mastitis and have been shown to be profitable when incidence of clinical c…
Vaccine Handling: Producer Tips for Chuteside Success
Vaccines are an integral part of a comprehensive herd health program. When used in conjunction with other management tools, vaccines can reduce both the risk and impact of disease in beef cattle herds. Nevertheless, when used inappropriately, vaccines can be virtually useless and, in some cases, result in impaired productivity and significant economic losses.
Water Requirements and Quality Issues for Cattle
Water is the most important nutrient for cattle. It accounts for 50 to 80 percent of an animal's weight and is involved in every physiological process. Cattle cannot adapt to water restriction and feed intake greatly decreases if water is restricted. Water availability and quality can become a major issue during a drought. It is important to check water sources frequently for water availability an…
Water Reuse in Poultry Processing: Now addressed in the HACCP program
The USDA-Food Safety Inspection Service (FSIS) indicated that if water is to be reused in a poultry processing facility, then this reuse water must be accounted for in the plant’s HACCP program.
What's the “Beef” with Methane Emission and Cattle Production?
In recent years, global climate change has been one of the most frequently discussed scientific ideas in the popular press. Terms like “global warming” and “greenhouse gas” have been politicized with little discussion of what they really mean, shedding more heat than light on scientific discussions of changing climate. Concerns about the relative contributions of greenhouse gases from different in…
White Striping in Broiler Breast Meat
White striations in broiler breast meat tend to reduce customer confidence, because severe white striping means that the cooked meat will be tougher than meat with low white striping. There is also higher fat content in meat with severe white striping.
Consumers will not buy broiler breast meat with high fat and moderate to severe white striping, because it is inferior in quality and nutritional …
Windows User-Friendly Feed Formulation for Poultry and Swine
This publication (WUFFDA) provides a program designed to help formulate feeds for poultry and swine. It is available in the following languages: Afrikaanse, Chinese, Croatian, English, French, Korean, Minnesotan, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, Turkish and Farsi.