2175 Planting Guide to Grasses and Legumes for Forage and Wildlife in Georgia | UGA Cooperative Extension

Original manuscript by R. Dewey Lee

This planting guide will help producers establish grasses and legumes commonly grown in Georgia. Although information is given for particular species, it should not be taken as a recommendation to grow that species. Not all of the plant species grown in Georgia are recommended by the University of Georgia.

These lists are to be used as a guide and do not replace the need to obtain additional information for good management practices. Consult current reports, bulletins, and information for specific recommendations. Specific bulletins or reports are mentioned in the remarks section.

As always use certified seed to assure good germination, trueness to variety and freedom from noxious weeds. Certified seed is available for most recommended crops. Get the most from your soil by testing your soil to determine nutrient need. Contact the county Extension office for information on soil sampling. Fertilize and lime according to soil test results. Plant seed at the proper depth in a good seed bed when soil temperatures and moisture are best. Use the correct seeding rate per acre. For high yields maintain soil fertility and control weeds, insects and diseases. Harvest the appropriate time with properly adjusted equipment. Protect seed quality by proper handling and storage.

To view the information below in table format, download the PDF.

    Grasses

    Bahia

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 42

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 10,300-17,000

    Seeding Rate:

    • Broadcast/Drill: 10-15 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Coastal Plains: First frost free day

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season perennial: grazing

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 85
    • Minimum Purity %: 95
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.5%

    Remarks: See Bulletin 1362 for more info. Bahiagrass may become a pest in hybrid bermudagrass fields.

     

    Barley

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 48

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 850

    Seeding Rate:

    • Broadcast: 2.5-3 bu/A
    • Drill: 2-2.5 bu/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: Sept. 1 - Oct. 15
    • Piedmont: Sept. 1 - Oct. 15

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season annual: silage

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 85
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 10/lb

    Remarks: Not well adapted to Coastal Plains. Very sensitive to acid soils.

     

    Bermudagrass

    Well suited for conservation. See Bulletin 911 for more info. Use certified varieties.

    Common (hulled)

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 40

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 99,000-120,000

    Seeding Rate:

    • Broadcast/Drill: 5-10 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Statewide: May 15 - July 15

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season perennial: hay, grazing

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: --4
    • Minimum Purity %: --4
    • Maximum Weed Seed: --4

    Hybrid

    Seeding Rate:

    • Broadcast/Drill: 15-20 bu/A

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 1,000 sprigs/ bu1

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Statewide: Feb. 20 - Aug. 15

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 90 (living sprigs)
    • Minimum Purity % / Maximum Weed Seed: Can contain 2% other living plants.

     

    Corn

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 56

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 80-140

    Seeding Rate: 18,000-32,000 seed/A in rows

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: Apr. 1 - May 10
    • Piedmont: Apr. 1 - Apr. 20
    • Coastal Plains: Mar. 1 - Apr. 15

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season annual: silage, feed

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 90
    • Minimum Purity %: 99
    • Maximum Weed Seed: None

    Remarks: Produces top quality silage. Narrow rows (30") improve yields.

     

    Tall Fescue

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 20

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 11,000-14,500

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 10-15 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 15-20 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: Sept. 1 - Oct. 15
    • Piedmont: Sept. 1 - Oct. 15

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season perennial: hay, grazing

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.5%

    Remarks: Use low endophyte varieties only.

     

    Dallisgrass

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 17,500- 21,250

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 12-15 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 15-20 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Statewide: Feb. 15-Mar. 30

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season perennial: grazing

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 50
    • Minimum Purity %: 40
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 1%

    Remarks: Produces 65-75% as much dry matter as bahiagrass. Difficult to establish.

     

    Johnsongrass

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 40

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 8,250

    Seeding Rate: 15-20 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Statewide: Apr. - July

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season perennial: grazing, hay, silage

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 90
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.1%

    Remarks: Is a serious weed pest in GA. Should not be planted for use -- is a noxious weed.

     

    Millet

    Browntop

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 56

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 5,000-8,900

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 10-20 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 20-25 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: May 1 - Aug. 1
    • Piedmont: Apr. 1 - Aug. 1
    • Coastal: Apr. 1 - Aug. 15

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season annual: hay, wildlife

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 60
    • Minimum Purity %: 90
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 10%3

    Remarks: Matures in 60-80 days.

    Foxtail (German, common, Hungarian)

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 50

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 11,500-15,500

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 15-20 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 20-25 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: May 1 - Aug. 1
    • Piedmont: Apr. 1 - Aug. 1
    • Coastal: Apr. 1 - Aug. 15

    Growth Type: wildlife, hay

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 90
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.25%

    Remarks: Matures in 75-90 days.

    Japanese

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 35

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 9,000-9,500

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 15-20 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 20-25 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    0583
    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: May 1 - Aug. 1
    • Piedmont: Apr. 1 - Aug. 1
    • Coastal: Apr. 1 - Aug. 15

    Growth Type: wildlife

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.25%

    Remarks: Very similar to barnyard grass. Seed matures in approx. 60 days. Good feed for ducks.

    Pearl

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 50

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 5,100-5,400

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 12-15 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 25-30 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Coastal: Apr. 1 - July 15

    Growth Type: grazing, hay, human consumption, wildlife, feed

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.25%

    Remarks: Planted in April should be ready to graze in 40 days. Production for 80 to 100 days.

    Proso

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 56

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 3,750-5,000

    Seeding Rate:

    • Rows: 10-20 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 20-25 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: May 1 - Aug. 1
    • Piedmon 0012 t: Apr. 1 - Aug. 1 5586
    • Coastal: Apr. 1 - Aug. 15

    Growth Type: wildlife

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.25%

    Remarks: Matures in 60-75 days.

     

    Oats

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 32

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 1,000-1,425

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 3-4 bu/A
    • Broadcast: 4 bu/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Statewide: Sept. 1 - Oct. 15

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season annual: grazing, silage, hay

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 85
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 10/lb

    Remarks: Used primarily as a companion crop with clover and other grass.

     

    Orchardgrass

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 14

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 23,500-29,800

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 10-15 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 2-5 bu/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: Sept. 1 - Oct. 15

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season perennial: grazing

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 85
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.5%

    Remarks: Best suited to the mountain regions of GA.

     

    Rye

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 56

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 1,135

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 2-2.5 bu/A
    • Broadcast: 2-5 bu/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Statewide: Sept. 1 - Oct. 15

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season annual: hay, grazing

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 10/lb

    Remarks: Used mainly for grazing or green mature. Cut for silage in heading stage.

     

    Rye grass

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 20

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 11,225-12,500

    Seeding Rate:

    • Broadcast: 20-30 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Statewide: Sept. 1 - Oct. 15

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season annual: hay, grazing

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 70
    • Minimum Purity %: 90
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 10%3

    Remarks: Reduce seeding rate if used in conjunction with small grain and clover.

     

    Sorghum

    Grain

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 56

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 800-1,500

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 6-8 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 10-12 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: May 15 - July 12
    • Piedmont: May 1 - July 1
    • Coastal Plains: April 15 - July 15

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season annual: silage, feed

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.1%

    Remarks: Plant when soil temp. is above 65°F.

    Forage

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 56

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 1,000-2,250

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 6-8 lb/A, 4-5 seed/ft

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: May 1 - July 12
    • Piedmont: May 1 - July 1
    • Coastal Plains: April 15 - July 1

    Growth Type:

    • green chop, silage

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.1%

    Remarks: Thick spacing increases lodging. Use wide rows.

    Sweet

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 50

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 1,000-2,250

    Seeding Rate:

    • Rows: 2-3 seed/ft (3-5 lb/A)

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: Late April - May 152

    Growth Type:

    • human consumption

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.1%

    Remarks: Often called "cane."

     

    Sudangrass

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 40

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 2,350-3,475

    Seeding Rate:

    • Rows: 10-15 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 20-25 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains/Piedmont: May 1-Aug. 12

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season annual: silage, hay, grazing

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.1%

    Remarks: Performs best on medium to heavy textured soils. High quality forage.

     

    Sorghum/Sudan Hybrids

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 40

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 3,500-3,700

    Seeding Rate:

    • Rows: 15-20 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 25-30 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: May 1 - Aug. 1
    • Piedmont: April 15 - Aug. 1
    • Coastal Plains: April 1 - Aug. 15

    Growth Type:

    • silage, hay, grazing

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.1%

    Remarks: A cross between forage sorghum and sudangrass. Generally out yields pearl millet.

     

    Triticale

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 40

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 700-950

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 2 bu/A
    • Broadcast: 2.5-3 bu/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Coastal Plains: Oct. 1-Nov. 15

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season annual: grazing, feed

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 85
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 10/lb

    Remarks: See current small grain performance test bulletin for variety yield results.

     

    Wheat

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 750-1,200

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 2-2.5 bu/A
    • Broadcast: 2.5 bu/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: Sept. 1-Oct. 15
    • Piedmont: Sept. 15-Oct. 15
    • Coastal Plains: Oct. 1-Nov. 1

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season annual: hay, grazing, feed

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 85
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 10/lb

    Remarks: Excellent quality silage. See small grain performance test bulletin for variety yield results. Use Hessian fly resistant cultivars.

    Legumes5 7

    See Bulletin 1347 for more information.

    Alfalfa

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 13,500-14,500

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 18-25 lb/A Use higher rate for Broadcast.

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: Aug. 25 - Sept. 10
    • Piedmont: Sept. 1 - Oct. 10
    • Coastal Plains: Sept. 20 - Oct. 20

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season perennial: grazing, hay

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 99
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.5%

    Remarks: See Bulletin 1350. Correct soil acidity prior to seeding. Harvest at early bloom stage.

     

    Beggarweed (Florida)

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 12,500-14,000

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill/Broadcast: 10-12 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Coastal Plains: April 15 - June 15

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season perennial: grazing, hay, wildlife

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: --
    • Minimum Purity %: --
    • Maximum Weed Seed: --4

    Remarks: Usually lives as an annual in GA. Considered to be a serious weed pest.

     

    Birdsfoot trefoil

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 23,000-24,000

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill/Broadcast: 6-12 lb/A6

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains/Piedmont: Sept. 1 - Oct. 10

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season perennial: grazing, hay

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.5%

    Remarks: Offers good grazing when mixed with tall fescue or orchardgrass. Natural reseeding.

     

    Caley pea (rough/winter)

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 53

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 950-1,135

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 20-25 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 25-30 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Statewide: Sept. 1 - Oct. 30

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season annual: wildlife, soil improvement

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: --
    • Minimum Purity %: --
    • Maximum Weed Seed: --4

    Remarks: Seed are poisonous to cattle. Grows well on heavy textured soils of moderate acidity.

     

    Clover

    Alyce

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 17,000-18,875

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill/Broadcast: 15-20 lb/A6

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Coastal Plains: May 1 - June 15

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season annual: grazing, hay, soil improvement

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 99
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.5%

    Remarks: Best suited to extreme south Georgia.

    Arrowleaf

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 45,500-55,000

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill/Broadcast: 5-8 lb/A6 (scarified)

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: Aug. 25 - Sept. 10
    • Piedmont: Sept. 1 - Sept. 20
    • Coastal Plains: Sept. 10 - Oct. 10

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season annual: grazing, hay

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 85
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.5%

    Remarks: Provides grazing till late May or early June.

    Berseem

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 12,000-13,000

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill/Broadcast: 15-20 lb/A6

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Coastal Plains: Oct. 1 - Nov. 1

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season annual: grazing

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 85
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.5%

    Remarks: Best suited to south GA.

    Crimson

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 8,750-9,500

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill/Broadcast: 20-30 lb/A6

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: Aug. 25 - Sept. 10
    • Piedmont: Sept. 1 - Sept. 20
    • Coastal Plains: Sept. 10 - Oct. 10

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season annual: grazing, hay, soil improvement

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 99
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.5%

    Remarks: Most productive from late Feb. to mid-April.

    Red

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 16,000-17,000

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 8-10 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 12-15 lb/A6

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains/Piedmont: Sept. 1 - Oct. 15

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season perennial: grazing, hay

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 85
    • Minimum Purity %: 99
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.25%

    Remarks: Usually does not persist more than 2-3 years. Excellent grazing when mixed with tall fescue and orchardgrass.

    Subterranean

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 3,375-4,125

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 8-10 lb/A6

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Statewide: Sept. 1 - Oct. 10

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season annual: grazing, hay

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 85
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.5%

    Remarks: A good reseeding plant. Can be maintained in permanent grass sods where properly managed.

    White (ladino)

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 42,000-55,000

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill/Broadcast: 2-4 lb/A6

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Statewide: Sept. 1 - Oct. 15

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season perennial: grazing, hay

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 85
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.5%

    Remarks: Does best on moist, upland land soils. Widely used in overseeding fescue pastures. See Bulletin 1251.

     

    Cowpea

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 125-375

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 60 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 60-90 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Statewide: May 1 - June 15

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season annual: grazing, hay, wildlife, soil improvement

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.1%

    Remarks: Does best on well drained fertile soil. Many cultivars reseed. Used mostly for wildlife, soil improvement.

     

    Lespedeza

    Kobe (common)

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 25-30

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 11,000-21,000

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 15-20 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 20-30 lb/A (scarified)

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains/Piedmont: Feb. 15 - Mar. 15

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season annual: hay, grazing, wildlife

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 1%

    Remarks: Also known as striate. Not suited for sandy soils. Seed yields higher when no hay is harvested.

    Korean

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 42-45

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 14,885

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 15-20 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 20-30 lb/A (scarified)

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains/Piedmont: Feb. 15 - Mar. 15

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season annual: hay, grazing, wildlife, soil improvement

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 1%

    Remarks: Not suited for sandy soils. Seed yield higher when no hay is harvested.

    Sericea

    Pounds of Seed/Bu:

    • Unhulled: 35
    • Hulled: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 21,875-23,250

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 15-20 lb/A6
    • Broadcast: 20-30 lb/A (scarified)

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Statewide: Mar. 15 - Apr. 15

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season perennial: hay, grazing, wildlife, soil improvement

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 1%

    Remarks: Use an herbicide to control competitive weeds. For hay, harvest in mature growth. May be used for conservation purposes.

    Bicolor

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 4,875-5,300

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 8-10 lb/A (30-36" rows) (scarified)
    • Live plants: 10,000/36" rows

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Piedmont/Coastal Plains: Mar. 1 - May 1

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season perennial: wildlife

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 1%

    Remarks: Use wide rows. Shrub must be managed to prevent unwanted growth. Excellent cover and food for wildlife.

    Thunbergii

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 2,800-4,200

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 8-10 lb/A (30-36" rows) (scarified)
    • Live plants: 10,000/36" rows

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Piedmont/Coastal Plains: Mar. 1 - May 1

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season perennial: wildlife

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 1%

    Remarks: Use wide rows. Shrub must be managed to prevent unwanted growth. Excellent cover and food for wildlife.

     

    Lupine (blue, white)

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 65-200 (white usually has larger seed than blue)

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 60-90 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 75-100 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains: Sept. 15 - 30
    • Piedmont: Sept. 15 - Oct. 15
    • Coastal Plains: Oct. 15 - Nov. 15

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season annual: hay, grazing, soil improvement

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.3%

    Remarks: Adapted best to sandy, loam soils. Only sweet varieties are suitable for grazing.

     

    Partridge Pea

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: --

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: --

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 5-10 lb/A
    • Broadcast: 15-20 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Piedmont/Coastal Plains: Mar. 1 - May 1

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season annual: wildlife

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: --
    • Minimum Purity %: --
    • Maximum Weed Seed: --4

    Remarks: May require acid scarification to improve germ. Hard seed. Most productive type is showy partridge pea.

     

    Rhizoma peanuts (perennial)

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: Vegetatively propagated

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: --

    Seeding Rate: 25-40 bu Rhizomes/A

    Approximate Planting Date: 0A67

    • Coastal Plains: Dec - Early March

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season perennial: soil improvement, hay, grazing

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 90% living sprigs
    • Minimum Purity % / Maximum Weed Seed: Can contain 2% other living plants

    Remarks: Most varieties developed in FL. Can be high quality hay.

     

    Sesbania

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 2,500-2,980

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill/Broadcast: 20-25 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Coastal Plains: May 1 - June 15

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season perennial: wildlife, soil improvement

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: --
    • Minimum Purity %: --
    • Maximum Weed Seed: --4

    Remarks: Very tall growing. Grows well in poorly drained areas. Considered a weed pest in GA.

     

    Sweetclover

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 16,000

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill/Broadcast: 10-15 lb/A (scarified)6

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains/Piedmont: Sept. 1 - Oct. 10

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season biennial: grazing, hay, soil improvement

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 99
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.5%

    Remarks: Used primarily for soil improvements and a crop for honey production.

     

    Vetch

    Common (hybrids)

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 600-1,000

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill/Broadcast: 15-25 lb/A6

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Piedmont: Sept. 1 - Oct. 15
    • Coastal Plains: Sept. 15 - Nov. 1

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season annual: grazing, wildlife, soil improvement

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.25%

    Remarks: New hybrid varieties have shown poor winter hardiness. Produces growth and seed earlier than hairy. Resistant to many nematodes.

    Hairy

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60 5DDA

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 1,000-1,250

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill/Broadcast: 20-30 lb/A6

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Limestone Valley and Mountains/Piedmont: Sept. 1 - Oct. 15
    • Coastal Plains: Sept. 15 - Nov. 1

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season annual: grazing, wildlife, soil improvement

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.25%

    Remarks: A cold hardy vetch. Poor reseeder and susceptible to nematodes.

     

    Winter peas (Austrian)

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 60

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 100-300

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill/Broadcast: 30-35 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Statewide: Sept. 1 - Oct. 30

    Growth Type:

    • Cool season annual: soil improvement, wildlife

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 80
    • Minimum Purity %: 98
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.1%

    Remarks: Growth period similar to vetch. Commonly used for soil improvement.

    Other

    Buckwheat

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 48

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 1,275-1,500

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill/Broadcast: 30-60 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Statewide: Apr. 15 - June 15

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season annual: forb, grain, wildlife, soil improvement

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: --
    • Minimum Purity %: --
    • Maximum Weed Seed: --4

    Remarks: A short season crop. Good for honey production.

     

    Chufa

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 44

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: varies

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 25-35 lb/A (12" rows)
    • Broadcast: 50-60 lb/A

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Coastal Plains: May 15 - June 30

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season perennial: sedge, wildlife

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: --
    • Minimum Purity %: --
    • Maximum Weed Seed: --4

    Remarks: Should be planted in sandy textured soils. Very similar to nutsedge.

     

    Sesame

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 46

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 8,000-11,000

    Seeding Rate:

    • Drill: 1 lb/A in (36" rows)

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Coastal Plains: May 1 - June 15

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season annual: forb, wildlife, oil, seed crop, human consumption

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: --
    • Minimum Purity %: --
    • Maximum Weed Seed: --4

    Remarks: Also known as "orobenne." Most varieties shatter readily. Require 90-120 days to maturity.

     

    Sunflowers

    Pounds of Seed/Bu: 30

    Approximate Seeds/Oz: 350-4Use oil types for wildlife food plots.00

    Seeding Rate: 18,000-22,000

    Approximate Planting Date:

    • Coastal Plains/Piedmont: April - June

    Growth Type:

    • Warm season feed, wildlife

    Certified Seed Quality:

    • Minimum Germ %: 85
    • Minimum Purity %: 97
    • Maximum Weed Seed: 0.2

    Remarks: Use oil types for wildlife food plots.

     

    1Bu = 4/5 cu. ft.

    2Soil temps should be 65°F.

    3No certified standards apply. Minimum requirements are State Seed Laws only.

    4No minimum requirements. For sale, must have germ, purity and weed seed % on tag.

    5Legumes require rhizobium bacteria for nitrogen fixation. Use the appropriate inoculant.

    6Reduce rate by 1/3-2/3 if mixing with a grass or other legume.

    7Plant small seeded legumes and grasses 0-1/4" deep. Other legumes 1/4-1/2" deep. Small grains and large seeded legumes such as lupine should be planted 3/4 -1" deep.


    Status and Revision History
    In Review for Minor Revisions on Feb 12, 2009
    In Review on Jan 05, 2010
    Published on Jan 22, 2010
    Published with Full Review on Jan 28, 2013
    Published with Full Review on Apr 11, 2017
    Published with Minor Revisions on Jul 06, 2017

    Faculty
    Dennis Hancock Associate Professor - Extension Forages, Crop & Soil Sciences R. Dewey Lee Extension Agronomist - Feed Grains, Crop & Soil Sciences
    Have a question? Contact your local UGA Extension office to find out how our team of county agents can assist you.
    Set County Preference
    0